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Kim D. Bowman

Secure identification of individual plants by some kind of labels in the field is an important part of many types of horticultural, plant science, and ecological research. This report describes implanted microchips as one method of plant tagging that is reliable, durable, and secure. This technology may be especially useful in long-term experiments involving perennial woody plants. Two methods are described for implanting microchips in citrus trees that would also be applicable to other woody plant species. One method of implanting microchips is demonstrated to have no deleterious effect on citrus tree growth through the first 18 months after implantation into the tree. Since microchips implanted beneath the bark will become more deeply embedded in wood as the plants grow, signal penetration through wood was evaluated and determined to be sufficient for long-term field utility. Implanted microchips are potentially useful for secure tagging of valuable or endangered plant species to deter theft by providing secure and conclusive identification.

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R.C. Beeson Jr.

Growth characteristics and marketing of woody ornamentals prevent crop scheduling common in floriculture crops. However, many tasks in the production of woody ornamentals require coordination with the season and/or physiological state of the species. Since most woody ornamental nurseries produce many species or cultivars, a variety of tasks occur concurrently. This review highlights the major tasks required during production for most species of woody plants. The physiological and environmental factors that dictate or influence scheduling are discussed.

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Jacob H. Shreckhise, James S. Owen Jr. and Alex X. Niemiera

increase shoot growth. Despite BMP recommendations, there is evidence that <5 mg·L −1 P in substrate pore-water is sufficient for growing salable woody plants in soilless substrates. In a substrate consisting of 2 perlite : 1 peat (by volume), Havis and

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Carlton C. Davidson, Jeff L. Sibley and D. Joseph Eakes

Traditional propagation courses seldom allow extensive evaluation of the variables required for successful propagation. A series of experiments were designed to give an individual student practical experience in woody plant propagation. Softwood terminal cuttings were taken on five shrub or tree species, dividing each species into separate experiments comparing talc vs. liquid auxin formulations. Selections evaluated included luster leaf holly with treatments of 3000, 8000, and 16,000 ppm K-IBA; hetz holly, crape myrtle, and anise tree with treatments of 1000, 3000, and 8000 ppm K-IBA; and sugar maple with 8000 and 16,000 ppm K-IBA. Budding and seed propagation also were evaluated in sugar maple. In each species, except sugar maple, liquid quick-dip at the highest K-IBA concentration produced the best rooting. The student gained many educational benefits in basic experimental design, evaluation of data collected, and drawing conclusions to findings significant by industry standards. The student also learned and how production cycles have an impact on various methods, development stages of cutting material, and wounding techniques. The practical propagation experience gained was of primary importance thereby further preparing the student for employment in the industry.

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Isabelle Duchesne and Jacques-André Rioux

To examine injuries caused by freezing temperature, six woody plants were placed under temperatures ranging from 0 to 20C. Control plants were placed at 0 or –2C, depending on the field sampling period. Freezing tests were done three times (September, October, and November) during the fall. In 1992, six species were tested: Genista tinctoria `Lydia', Parthenocissus `Veitchii', Weigela × florida `Variegata', Spiraea japonica `Shirobana', Spiraea japonica `Coccinea', and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. After testing, all plants were stored at –2C for the remainder of the winter. The following May, plants were repotted into containers. Effects of freezing temperatures on plant growth were recorded at the end of the following summer. Preliminary results indicate that the most sensitive species to cold temperatures were Parthenocissus `Veitchii' and Arctostaphylos uvaursi. Plants of these two species did not survive the summer. However, for the third sampling period, Parthenocissus `Veitchii' (–18C) had better cold hardiness than A. uva-ursi (–9.5C). Genista tinctoria `Lydia' appeared to have the same cold hardiness (–10C) for the three sampling periods. The last three species had shown increasing cold hardiness beginning at around –8C in September to about –18C in November.

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Isabelle Duchesne and Jacques-André Rioux

To examine injuries caused by freezing temperatures, three woody plants were placed under temperatures ranging from 0 to –20C. Control plants were placed at 0 or –2 C, depending on the field sampling period. Freezing tests were done three times during the fall: Sept., Oct. and Nov., 1993. Spiraea × bumalda `Flamingmount', Spiraea callosa `Alba', and Spiraea × bumalda `Crispa' were tested. After freezing tests were complete, all plants were stored at –2C for the remainder of winter. In May, plants were repotted into containers. Effects of freezing temperatures on plant growth were recorded at the end of the summer. Results indicated that the most sensitive species to cold temperatures is Spiraea × bumalda `Crispa'. Moreover, the response of plants to the September freezing test was too variable to give a valid statistical analysis. Regression analysis was used as a tool to determine the temperature at which there is a 25% reduction in growth of the stem and the root dry matter, respectively. Results obtained in October are as follows: Spiraea × bumalda `Crispa', –6 and –7.6C; Spiraea × bumalda `Flamingmount', –10 and –8.7C; and Spiraea callosa `Alba' –10.7 and –11.5C. Results obtained in November are as follows: Spiraea × bumalda `Crispa', –7.1 and –8C; Spiraea × bumalda `Flamingmount', –12.2 and –12.3C; and Spiraea callosa `Alba', –8.5 and –8.7C. The reduction in cold hardiness observed for Spiraea callosa `Alba' is caused by warmer conditions (20C) in which plants were placed 2 days before the freezing test.

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Danny L. Barney, Omar A. Lopez and Elizabeth King

) reported on the effects of plant growth regulators on in vitro culture and microshoot rooting of mountain huckleberry, although those trials were limited to modified woody plant medium (WPM) ( Lloyd and McCown, 1980 ). Reed and Abdelnour-Esquivel (1991

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Susmitha Nambuthiri, Ethan Hagen, Amy Fulcher and Robert Geneve

container-grown woody plants that differed in their water use demand under different growing environments. Materials and Methods Experiment locations and plants. A series of experiments were conducted to test physiologically based and DWU irrigation systems

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Lesley A. Judd, Brian E. Jackson, William C. Fonteno and Jean-Christophe Domec

HCFM has mainly been used to measure stem, leaf, and root hydraulic conductivities on woody plants: Vitis vines ( Vandeleur, 2007 ; Vandeleur et al., 2009 , 2014 ), Prunus plants ( Tataranni et al., 2012 ), and Tsuga trees ( Domec et al., 2013

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Michael Wisniewski, Glen Davis and Katherine Bowers

Our previous research has indicated that the pit membrane regulates deep supercooling of xylem parenchyma in woody plants. This area of the cell wall is composed of three layers that may be rich in pectins. Since pectins may define the porosity of the cell wall they may also regulate deep supercooling. The present study examined pectin distribution in ray cells using monoclonal antibodies, that recognize un-esterified (JIM5) and methyl-esterified (JIM7) epitopes of pectin, in conjuction with immunogold electron microscopy. Antibodies were obtained courtesy of J. Paul Knox, John Innes Inst., U.K. Dormant and non-dormant tissues of Prunus persica, Cornus florida and Salix babylonica were utilized. Labelling with JIM7 revealed that methyl-esterified pectins were abundant and evenly distributed within the primary cell wall and amorphous layer. Labelling with JIM5 revealed that un-esterified pectins were located specifically within the pit membrane, in the outer region of the primary cell wall. No differences were observed between species, however, preliminary data indicated that JIM5 labelling was greater in dormant than in non-dormant tissues.