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Glenn B. Fain, Charles H. Gilliam, Jeff L. Sibley, Cheryl R. Boyer and Anthony L. Witcher

States on peat alternatives. Some of the more promising alternatives that might have potential in the United States are those made of wood fiber from coniferous trees. Studies by Gruda and Schnitzler (2001) and Gruda et al. (2000a , 2000b) demonstrated

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Glenn B. Fain, Charles H. Gilliam, Jeff L. Sibley and Cheryl R. Boyer

industry into the future. Some of the more promising alternatives currently used in Europe are those made of wood fiber. Studies by Gruda et al. (2000) and Gruda and Schnitzler (2001) demonstrated the suitability of wood fiber substrates as an

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Robert D. Wright, Brian E. Jackson, Michael C. Barnes and Jake F. Browder

: Eigenschaften und Qualitatsanforderungen Gartenbau 38 44 47 Gruda, N. Schnitzler, W.H. 1999 Influence of wood fiber substrates and nitrogen application rates on the growth of tomato transplants Adv. Hort. Sci. 13 20 24 Gruda, N. Schnitzler, W.H. 2003 Suitability

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright and John R. Seiler

), commercial wood fiber substrates including Cultifibre®, Hortifibre®, and Toresa® ( Bohne, 2004 ; Lemaire et al., 1989 ), and hardwood chips from ground whole oak and elm trees ( Kenna and Whitcomb, 1985 ). Laiche and Nash (1986) were the first in the

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Cheryl R. Boyer, Thomas V. Gallagher, Charles H. Gilliam, Glenn B. Fain, H. Allen Torbert and Jeff L. Sibley

wood fiber substrates and their effect on growth of lettuce seedlings ( Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L.) Acta Hort. 548 415 423 Harkin, J.M. Rowe, J.W. 1971 Bark and its possible uses. U.S. Dept. Agr. For. Serv. Res. Note 091 Jackson, B.E. Wright

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Stephanie A. Beeks and Michael R. Evans

straw containers (Ivy Acres, Inc., Baiting Hollow, NY) are composed of 80% rice straw, 20% coconut fiber, and a proprietary natural adhesive as a binder. Wood fiber containers are composed of 80% cedar fibers, 20% peat, and lime (Fertil International

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Stephanie A. Beeks and Michael R. Evans

. Wood fiber containers are composed of 80% cedar fibers, 20% peat, and lime. Coconut fiber containers are made from the medium and long fibers extracted from coconut husks and a binding agent. One type of compostable biocontainer available for greenhouse

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Cheryl R. Boyer, Glenn B. Fain, Charles H. Gilliam, Thomas V. Gallagher, H. Allen Torbert and Jeff L. Sibley

chip residual-based substrates. z Recent studies in the U.S. on the effect of growing crops in substrates composed of high percentages of wood fiber have indicated similar properties to CCR. Wright and Browder (2005) demonstrated that with proper

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Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Andrew K. Koeser, Guihong Bi, Victoria Anderson, Krista Jacobsen, Renee Conneway, Sven Verlinden, Ryan Stewart and Sarah T. Lovell

, in part, to the relatively impervious nature of the materials used to construct the slotted rice hull containers and bioplastic sleeves ( Koeser et al., 2013 ). Most plantable biocontainers are made from highly porous materials (e.g., peat, wood fiber

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Andrew Koeser, Sarah T. Lovell, Michael Evans and J. Ryan Stewart

, peat, straw, and wood fiber) and a conventional petroleum-based plastic control ( Koeser et al., 2013 ). However, the study found that the high rate of fertilization and container wetting–drying pattern associated with subirrigation can cause a