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Mohammed B. Tahboub, William C. Lindemann and Leigh Murray

control burning in the future ( New Mexico Air Quality Bureau, 2003 ). Other disposal methods of pecan pruning wood such as mulching, composting, and the use of pecan wood as firewood are not economically feasible. The use of pecan wood chips as mulch

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Mohammed B. Tahboub, William C. Lindemann and Leigh Murray

wood as an alternative to burning has gained acceptance in areas of the San Joaquin Valley, CA ( Holtz, 1999 ) where environmental regulations have forced growers to adopt alternative ways to deal with the waste. The addition of almond wood chips

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James Ferguson, Bala Rathinasabapathi and Clinton Warren

containerized plant production ( Weston, 2005 ). However, wood chips and leaf mulches from several woody perennials, including southern redcedar and southern magnolia, may contain water-soluble natural products with phytotoxic activities and they could therefore

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W. Garrett Owen, Brian E. Jackson, Brian E. Whipker and William C. Fonteno

chipper (model 356447; DR Power Equipment, Vergennes, VT) resulting in large wood chips [1 × 0.2 × 1.0 cm (length × width × height), n = 20 ( Fig. 1A )]. Wood chips were then spread out (1-inch deep) on a concrete pad under shelter, turned periodically

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W. Garrett Owen, Brian E. Jackson, Brian E. Whipker and William C. Fonteno

Power Equipment, Vergennes, VT) resulting in large wood chips [1 × 0.2 × 1.0 cm (length × width × height); n = 20 ( Fig. 1A )]. Wood chips were then spread out (1 inch deep) on a concrete pad under shelter, turned periodically and allowed to air-dry for

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Edward F. Gilman, Thomas H. Yeager and Diane Weigle

Columns (4 × 15 cm) of incubated (25C, 7% volumetric moisture) milled cypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) L. Rich] wood chips received 180 mg of each ionic form of N applied to the surface from dry NH4NO3, KNO3, or (NH4)2SO4 and were leached daily with 16 ml deionized water (pH 5.5). After 10 days, >85% of applied N leached from the columns in all treatments. After 25 days, all N leached from the NH4NO3 and KNO3 treatments, and 93% leached from the (NH4)2SO4 treatment. In subsequent experiments, columns received 360 mg N from NH4NO3 and were leached daily with either 16, 32, 48, or 64 ml of deionized water for 50 days. The rate of N leaching increased with increasing water application rate, although total N leached per column was similar for all water rates after 25 days. Columns that received 45, 90, 180, or 360 mg N/column were leached daily with 16 ml of deionized water. Nitrogen concentrations in the leachate ranged from 3406 ppm \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} and 2965 ppm \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{4}^{+}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} at day 5 for the 360-mg rate to 3 and 5 ppm, respectively, at day 35 for the 45-mg rate. In all experiments with NH4NO3, more \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} leached than \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{4}^{+}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} and more \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} leached than applied, indicating vitrification occurred. \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{4}^{+}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} and \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\mathrm{-}\mathrm{N}\) \end{document} broadcast over cypress wood chips in the landscape would leach quickly into the soil.

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Bala Rathinasabapathi, James Ferguson and Mark Gal

Shredded and chipped wood mulches are used for weed suppression in perennial fruit crops, in urban landscapes, and occasionally in vegetable crops. Wood chip mulches with weed-suppressing allelochemicals may be more effective for weed control, especially under sustainable and organic production systems, than mulches without such properties. The objective of this study was to test for the presence of water-soluble allelochemicals in wood chips derived from tree species, often found in wood resource recovery operations in the southeastern US. Presence of allelochemicals in water eluates of woodchips and leaves was evaluated in a lettuce bioassay. Eluates of wood chips from red maple (Acer rubrum L.), swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.), red cedar (Juniperus silicicola L.H. Bailey), neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), and magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora L.) highly inhibited germinating lettuce seeds, as assessed by inhibition of hypocotyl and radicle growth. The effects of wood chip eluates from these five species were more than that found for eluates from wood chips of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.,) a species previously identified to have weed-suppressing allelochemicals. Tests on red cedar, red maple, and neem showed that water-soluble allelochemicals were present not only in the wood but also in the leaves. In greenhouse trials, red cedar wood chip mulch significantly inhibited the growth of florida beggarweed (Desmodium tortuosum DC.), compared to the gravel-mulched and no-mulch controls.

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Patricia S. Holloway

Five woody ornamentals Rosa rugosa, Cotoneaster acutifolia, Malus baccata, Picea glauca and Pinus contorta var. latifolia, were grown for 4 seasons mulched with one of five treatments: 2.5 cm or 5 cm of crushed basaltic quarry stone, 5 cm or 10 cm of quaking aspen wood chips, and an unmulched control. Maximum soil temperatures at the 10 cm depth on the wood chip plots were decreased by as much as 8°C over control plots, and soil moisture was increased. Stone mulch plots showed a slight increase in both temperature and moisture. Soil minimum temperatures were lower on the wood chip plots than the other treatments early in the season, but were slightly higher in September. Soil pH and available N, P and K did not differ among mulch treatments. Weed growth was suppressed by all mulch treatments but was best controlled on the wood chip plots followed by the 5 cm stone plots. Plant growth for all species except Rosa rugosa was greatest on the stone mulch plots. Roses growing on the stone mulch plots and the control were subject to significant dieback from winter injury and did not show any difference in total growth after 4 years when compared with the wood chip plots. Plants grown on the wood chip plots exhibited varying degrees of nitrogen deficiency which may be related to reduced nutrient uptake in cooler soils or to a significant amount of rooting in the mulch-soil interface.

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Patricia S. Holloway

Five woody ornamentals Rosa rugosa, Cotoneaster acutifolia, Malus baccata, Picea glauca and Pinus contorta var. latifolia, were grown for 4 seasons mulched with one of five treatments: 2.5 cm or 5 cm of crushed basaltic quarry stone, 5 cm or 10 cm of quaking aspen wood chips, and an unmulched control. Maximum soil temperatures at the 10 cm depth on the wood chip plots were decreased by as much as 8°C over control plots, and soil moisture was increased. Stone mulch plots showed a slight increase in both temperature and moisture. Soil minimum temperatures were lower on the wood chip plots than the other treatments early in the season, but were slightly higher in September. Soil pH and available N, P and K did not differ among mulch treatments. Weed growth was suppressed by all mulch treatments but was best controlled on the wood chip plots followed by the 5 cm stone plots. Plant growth for all species except Rosa rugosa was greatest on the stone mulch plots. Roses growing on the stone mulch plots and the control were subject to significant dieback from winter injury and did not show any difference in total growth after 4 years when compared with the wood chip plots. Plants grown on the wood chip plots exhibited varying degrees of nitrogen deficiency which may be related to reduced nutrient uptake in cooler soils or to a significant amount of rooting in the mulch-soil interface.

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Curt R. Rom and Jason McAfee*

`Apache' blackberry planted in 3-m plots spaced at 0.6 m between plants were maintained either with or without waste municipal wood chip mulch and grown for 5 years. Plots received similar weed control, pest management, and irrigation. All plots were annually hedged at 1.35-m height twice during midsummer to encourage branching. Fruit were harvested beginning in the second season after a season of establishment. Annual yield in the mulched plots was 15% greater, average fruit size was 4% larger, and cumulative yield was 9% greater in the mulched plots compared to nonmulched control plots. In two seasons, average berry soluble solids content of fruit from mulched plots was slightly, but not significantly higher. Annual primocane number was 33% greater, floricane number 41% greater, floricane dry weight after harvest was 15% greater, and average plant height before summer pruning was 24% taller in mulched plots compared to nonmulched plots. Mulch significantly reduced weeds within the plots.