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Thomas M. Todaro and Imed E. Dami

freezing event, with the purpose of enhancing grapevine recovery ( Poling, 2008 ; Zabadal et al., 2007 ). Following winter injury, vine recovery management strategy is a key cultural practice that involves adjustment of pruning and training with the goal

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Hilary A. Sandler

The benefit of applying an antitranspirant for protection of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) vines exposed to desiccating conditions was evaluated at four different sites, two sites per year, for a period of 1 year each. Overall, plots receiving one fall application of an antitranspirant produced more berries and greater total fruit mass the following year than did nontreated plots. Overall dry leaf mass was not significantly affected. At one site, treated plots had more flowering uprights and more flowers per upright per unit of ground area than the nontreated plots. For cranberry growers who cannot maintain a winter flood, one fall application of pinolene (Vapor Gard) may offer some protection against winter injury. Further research is needed to document long-term yield effects as well as to clarify the role of the antitranspirant in protecting exposed vines and floral buds against adverse winter conditions. Chemical name used: di-1-p-menthene (pinolene).

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G.E. Jones and B.M. Cregg

Seventeen Abies species were evaluated for budbreak and frost injury at four locations in Michigan. Freeze tests were conducted on four species growing at the Horticulture Teaching and Research Center to determine cold hardiness levels during winter. Species differed (P ≤ 0.0001) in their days to budbreak at all locations. Trees that had broken bud were more prone to late spring frost damage than trees yet to break bud. Species differed in chlorophyll fluorescence, bud damage, and needle damage after exposure to –44 °C. Bud, foliar, and cambium damage were correlated with chlorophyll fluorescence following freeze tests. Budbreak and midwinter cold hardiness were correlated. Species breaking bud earlier displayed greater midwinter cold hardiness than species breaking bud later. Selection criteria for future Abies introductions to the upper midwestern U.S. should include identifying species with late budbreak to reduce risk of late frost injury.

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Mark P. Widrlechner, Christopher Daly, Markus Keller, and Kim Kaplan

Horticulturists have long recognized that the accurate prediction of winter injury is a key component of the effective cultivation of long-lived woody and herbaceous perennial plants in many climates. Winter injury can limit long-term plant survival

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Norman Pellett and David Heleba

Chopped newspaper at 3.5 and 7.0 kg.m-2 enclosed in white polyethylene sheeting or enclosed in nylon netting at 3.5 kg.m-2 was compared with two layers of 0.64-cm microfoam as winter covering of four taxa of container-grown nursery plants. White polyethylene-enclosed newspaper moderated winter temperatures more than net-enclosed newspaper or two layers of microfoam under white polyethylene. All coverings provided protection against winter injury, as evidenced by container temperature, but net-enclosed newspaper at 3.5 kg.m-2 resulted in a minimal percentage of Daphne burkwoodii `Carol Mackie' plants with three or more shoots longer than 2 cm in the spring. Gaillardia grandiflora, covered by newspaper during winter, had less spring growth than plants covered by microfoam, but all coverings provided protection for Juniperus horizontalis `Prince of Wales' and Physostegia virginiana.

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G. J. Keever, G.S. Cobb, and W.J. Foster

Plant response to time of transplanting from 0.53-qt (OS-liter) to l-gal (3.8-liter) containers was influenced by cultivar and severity of winter. Transplanting of `Formosa' from Sept. through Dec. 1983 resulted in injury and death of many plants due to a low temperature of 8F (-13.3C) in Dec. 1983. Injury or death of `Hino Crimson' was higher when plants were transplanted in December. Survival and growth indices of both cultivars were higher when transplanted in January through March. During 1986-87, when minimum temperature was 26F (-3.3C), transplanting between September and April had minimal effect on growth of `Formosa', but plant quality was better when plants were transplanted between December and April. Transplanting date had little effect on size of `Hino Crimson', except smaller plants were produced when transplanted in April; quality was highest of plants transplanted from November through March.

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Edward F. Durner

`Redhaven' peach trees [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] on their own roots or budded to seven rootstock [`Bailey', `Siberian C', `Lovell', `Halford' (seedlings), GF 655.2, GF 677 (`Amandier'), or `Damas' (GF 1869) (clonal)] were evaluated for rootstock influence on flower bud hardiness, live pistils at bloom, thinning requirements, marketable yield, and production efficiency after exposure to temperatures lower than – 23C in 1987 and to - 26C in 1988. In 1987, flower bud hardiness was as great on `Siberian C' as on own-rooted `Redhaven' and greater than on the other rootstock. Fewer live pistils were observed during bloom on GF 677 than on `Siberian C', `Lovell', `Damas', or self-rooted trees in 1987. In 1988, flower bud hardiness was greater on `Siberian C' and `Bailey' than on GF 677. At bloom, `Lovell' and `Siberian C' rootstock carried more flowers with live pistils than `Damas'.`Siberian C' and `Lovell' required significantly greater fruit thinning than all other rootstock and self-rooted trees. GF 677 produced a larger marketable crop than GF 655.2 or `Damas'. In addition, `Bailey', `Lovell', and self-rooted trees produced a significantly larger crop than `Damas'. No significant rootstock effect on production efficiency was detected in either year. Tree vigor during the growing season preceding each freeze did not significantly influence flower bud survival or productivity.

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Imed Dami, Said Ennahli, and David Scurlock

at that time ( Fig. 3 ). In other words, there was no winter injury experienced in that year because LT50 was lower than the coldest air temperature recorded. CT and HD did not have any effect on ‘Vidal blanc’ bud cold-hardiness in any of the dates

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Michael W. Smith

Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch.] trees were injured by freezing temperatures in Oct. 2000, occurring about 4 weeks before the average first freeze and 6 weeks before the normal killing freeze (less than or equal to -2 °C). Nonbearing and bearing cultivars were rated for injury at four sites the following May. Nonbearing cultivars with little or no damage included `Caddo', `Clark II', `Giles', `Kanza', and `Peruque'. Those that had substantial damage included `Maramec', `Pawnee', `Oconee', `Shawnee', and `OK642'. Bearing cultivars with little or no injury included `Stuart', `GraKing', `Pawnee', `Tejas', and `Wichita'. The most severely damaged bearing cultivars were `Gratex', `Shoshoni', and `Squirrel's Delight'.

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Paul E. Cappiello and Scott W. Dunham

Seven Vaccinium angustifolium clones were tested for low-temperature tolerance over two dormant seasons. Flower primordia in the pseudoapical bud were damaged at higher temperatures than were stem tissue and primordia of the fourth floral bud. The flower primordia located at the stem tip also reacclimated earlier and seemed to show a stronger response to abrupt spring warming than did other tissues tested. Given the lowest survival temperatures determined and the ambient temperatures recorded, we recommend that the physiological and economic aspects of cryoprotectants and flower-delaying treatments be studied further.