Three of 6 antitranspirants significantly reduced winter injury 1 of 5 years when applied 1 and 2 times to Ilex × attenuata Ashe ‘Foster's No. 2’. No reduction of winter injury was observed during 1979 and 1980 even though leaf water potentials recorded during winter stress periods indicated that Exhalt 4-10, Vapor Gard, Wilt Pruf, Folicote, and Foligard significantly reduced transpirational loss of water in midwinter. Two applications of Folicote and Exhalt 4-10 increased water potential more than the single fall application, but did not reduce winter injury significantly. Clear Spray did not increase leaf water potential and appeared to crack and peel within 3 weeks aftef application. Scanning electron micrographs indicated better coverage of leaf surfaces by dipping them by spraying and verified the rapid cracking of Clear Spray.
freezing event, with the purpose of enhancing grapevine recovery ( Poling, 2008 ; Zabadal et al., 2007 ). Following winter injury, vine recovery management strategy is a key cultural practice that involves adjustment of pruning and training with the goal
The benefit of applying an antitranspirant for protection of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) vines exposed to desiccating conditions was evaluated at four different sites, two sites per year, for a period of 1 year each. Overall, plots receiving one fall application of an antitranspirant produced more berries and greater total fruit mass the following year than did nontreated plots. Overall dry leaf mass was not significantly affected. At one site, treated plots had more flowering uprights and more flowers per upright per unit of ground area than the nontreated plots. For cranberry growers who cannot maintain a winter flood, one fall application of pinolene (Vapor Gard) may offer some protection against winter injury. Further research is needed to document long-term yield effects as well as to clarify the role of the antitranspirant in protecting exposed vines and floral buds against adverse winter conditions. Chemical name used: di-1-p-menthene (pinolene).
Genetic variance components, narrow sense heritability, and combining ability effects of parents were determined for several traits from analysis of a partial diallel cross involving 17 parents. Parents included several Vaccinium species and interspecific hybrids. For fall growth cessation, general combining ability (GCA) effects were variable from year to year, and heritability was low. Variance due to GCA was more important than specific combining ability (SCA) variance for winter injury in each of the years. The heritability estimate over years was low for winter injury, although individual year estimates were higher. Lowbush parents had high GCA effects for winter injury in years with snow cover but low estimates for years without snow cover. Off-season flowering was observed in some progenies in both years studied. Certain V. angustifolium Ait. parents had high GCA effects for the occurrence of off-season flowering. The heritability estimate for off-season flowering in combined years was 0.47. Variation due to years and to GCA × year interaction was significant for all characters studied.
Current season shoots of 5-year-old ‘Redhaven’ peach trees were pruned in half on 1 July, 1 Aug., or both dates (50, 80 days after growth shoot initiation). Pruning reduced current season shoot length compared to unpruned shoots, but only 1 July pruning reduced current season shoot diameter, and increased lateral shoot growth. All pruning treatments reduced flower bud number proportional to shoot length removed; however, 1 Aug. pruning increased flower bud density per node. The previous summer season pruning did not influence the amount of winter injury on 1-year-old shoots after exposure to severe winter temperatures (-27.8°C). Summer pruning did not influence number of new shoots formed the following spring.
Seventeen Abies species were evaluated for budbreak and frost injury at four locations in Michigan. Freeze tests were conducted on four species growing at the Horticulture Teaching and Research Center to determine cold hardiness levels during winter. Species differed (P ≤ 0.0001) in their days to budbreak at all locations. Trees that had broken bud were more prone to late spring frost damage than trees yet to break bud. Species differed in chlorophyll fluorescence, bud damage, and needle damage after exposure to –44 °C. Bud, foliar, and cambium damage were correlated with chlorophyll fluorescence following freeze tests. Budbreak and midwinter cold hardiness were correlated. Species breaking bud earlier displayed greater midwinter cold hardiness than species breaking bud later. Selection criteria for future Abies introductions to the upper midwestern U.S. should include identifying species with late budbreak to reduce risk of late frost injury.
Horticulturists have long recognized that the accurate prediction of winter injury is a key component of the effective cultivation of long-lived woody and herbaceous perennial plants in many climates. Winter injury can limit long-term plant survival
A 34°C drop in temperature from Nov. 1-8 affected plant parts of apple trees in direct proportion to vigor. More damage was evident on the shoots originating from the graft-union area than those from scaffold branches originating from the apical portions of the tree.
Injury to woody ornamental plants, caused by unseasonably cold weather in early fall or late spring, is a major problem not only to producers and retailers of woody plants but also to consumers who purchase plants for use in the home landscape.
Chopped newspaper at 3.5 and 7.0 kg.m-2 enclosed in white polyethylene sheeting or enclosed in nylon netting at 3.5 kg.m-2 was compared with two layers of 0.64-cm microfoam as winter covering of four taxa of container-grown nursery plants. White polyethylene-enclosed newspaper moderated winter temperatures more than net-enclosed newspaper or two layers of microfoam under white polyethylene. All coverings provided protection against winter injury, as evidenced by container temperature, but net-enclosed newspaper at 3.5 kg.m-2 resulted in a minimal percentage of Daphne burkwoodii `Carol Mackie' plants with three or more shoots longer than 2 cm in the spring. Gaillardia grandiflora, covered by newspaper during winter, had less spring growth than plants covered by microfoam, but all coverings provided protection for Juniperus horizontalis `Prince of Wales' and Physostegia virginiana.