Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 183 items for :

  • "winter hardiness" x
  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All
Free access

Rajeev Arora and Lisa J. Rowland

; Warren, 1998 ). WINTER-HARDINESS AND CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPORTANCE OF DEACCLIMATION RESISTANCE AND REACCLIMATION ABILITY For winter survival, woody perennials not only must acclimate to cold, but also must resist premature deacclimation as a result of

Free access

Xurong Tang and Peter M.A. Tigerstedt

Eight characters relating to flowering and maturity, berry yield, and winter hardiness were estimated on the basis of intersubspecific or interprovenance hybrids to determine heterosis, heritability, and genetic and phenotypic correlations in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.). Two provenances of ssp. rhamnoides, one of Finnish (Fin) and one of Danish (Dan) origin, were dominant to ssp. sinensis and Russian derived provenances (ssp. turkestanica) for most characters related to flowering or maturity. This tendency for dominance or overdominance also extended to berry yield and winter hardiness, except for hybrids between Finnish origins and Siberian (ssp. mongolica) origins. The start of maturity (Ms) and half maturity (Mh) showed the highest heritabilities (h2 = 0.88 and 0.81, respectively). The hybrids were matroclinal, suggesting that Ms and Mh may be sex-linked or cytoplasmically inherited characters. Winter hardiness was the trait with the lowest heritability (h2 = 0.02), suggesting that the climate at the testing site was not severe enough to differentiate variation among half sibs or full sibs derived from Fin x Dan, which on average proved hardier than the native parental provenance Fin. Full maturity (Mf) showed a moderate heritability but was stable across 2 years (rB = 1). High genetic correlations among Mf, Ms, and Mh (rG = 0.94, 0.96, and 1.00, respectively) suggest that these characters were controlled by the same genes. Yield showed a negative genetic correlation with all characters pertaining to flowering and maturity, indicating that selection for early flowering or early maturity should result in a gain in yield.

Free access

Keith Patterson, Curt R. Rom, Robert Bourne, and John C. Clark

Ethrel sprays were applied at 50 or 100 ppm at approximately 40%, 70% leaf fall (10/16/89 or 10/24/89, respectively) or at both times on `Redhaven' and `Allgold' peaches. Bud hardiness was determined biweekly by differential thermal analysis (DTA). Stage and percentage of bloom open during the bloom period were subjectively estimated.

Spraying trees with 100ppm Ethrel at 50% leaf fall significantly increased bud hardiness at mid-winter compared to other treatments. After a mid-winter freeze (-21.7 C on 12/21/89), there was no significant difference between % bud survival of any treatments. But, trees treated with 50 or 100ppm Ethrel had 10-20% better bud survival than other treatments. Buds of the 2 cultivars had statistically similar hardiness although DTA analysis indicated that Redhaven had a .5-.8 C lower freezing point than Allgold in mid winter. This trend was reversed close to bloom with Allgold having .7 C lower freezing point than Redhaven. The time of full bloom was significantly delayed by treating trees with 100ppm at 40% leaf fall or 50ppm at both 40 and 70% leaf fall the previous autumn.

Free access

Jeffery K. Iles

Pruning aboveground tissues back to the plant crown in preparation for winter is a common cultural practice for garden chrysanthemums [Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura]. But some landscape managers suggest pruning immediately before the onset of low temperatures may be responsible for predisposing plants to winter injury. To evaluate the effect of pruning garden chrysanthemums in November and December on winter survival, rooted cuttings of 19 chrysanthemum cultivars were obtained from Yoder Brothers and were field-planted in a randomized complete-block design with five replications. Pruning treatments were 1) plants pruned to 2 cm above the crown on 1 Nov., 2) plants pruned to 2 cm above the crown on 1 Dec., and 3) plants not pruned. Survival and regrowth data were gathered the following summer. Cultivars differed in their response to the treatments, but in general, survival percentages and regrowth shoot dry weights were greater for plants that were not pruned.

Open access

James A. Schrader, Diana R. Cochran, Paul A. Domoto, and Gail R. Nonnecke

The popularity of grape (Vitis sp.) and wine production in the upper midwest region of the United States is increasing steadily. The development of several cold-climate, interspecific-hybrid grape cultivars (northern hybrids) since the 1980s has improved the probability of success for both new and established vineyards in this area of the country, but long-term data describing the performance of these cultivars in midwestern U.S. climates are needed to both aid growers in their choice of cultivars and to provide them with information about factors important in their management. We characterized the long-term winterhardiness and annual phenology of 12 cold-climate northern hybrid grape cultivars (two established cultivars, five newer cultivars, and five advanced selections) grown in a randomized and replicated field plot in central Iowa, an area that offers a warm growing season and very cold dormant season for grape culture. The established cultivars included in the study were Frontenac and St. Croix. The newer cultivars evaluated were Arandell, Corot noir, La Crescent, Marquette, and Petit Ami, and the advanced selections were MN 1189, MN 1200, MN 1220, MN 1235, and MN 1258. The grape trial was established in 2008, and vines were evaluated from 2011 through 2017 for annual timing of budbreak, bloom, veraison, and harvest, as well as winter survival of vines and primary buds. As a group, the northern hybrids in our trial showed good winterhardiness of vines but variable hardiness of primary buds across the six winters, which ranged from warmer than average to much colder than average. In Iowa climate, buds of northern hybrids were generally most vulnerable to cold temperature damage from late-winter (March) low-temperature events or from extreme midwinter low-temperature events. The bud hardiness of individual cultivars ranged from very hardy (Frontenac, Marquette, and MN 1235) to poor hardiness (Arandell, Corot noir, Petit Ami, and MN 1189), with all 12 cultivars showing good bud survival during Iowa winters that were warmer than average, but the less-hardy cultivars showing poor bud survival during winters that were colder than average. Evaluations of phenology revealed that heat accumulation measured in growing degree days with a threshold of 50 °F was not a reliable index for predicting the timing of annual developmental stages for the cultivars we tested. Our results indicate that northern hybrids rely on other factors in addition to heat accumulation for guiding annual development, and that factors such as photoperiod likely have a strong influence on phenological timing during seasons with unusual weather patterns. We determined that none of the cultivars were vulnerable to cold temperature damage to fruit before harvest in Iowa’s climate, but that three of the cultivars (Arandell, Marquette, and MN 1235) were highly vulnerable to shoot damage from spring freeze events, and four others (Corot noir, La Crescent, MN 1200, and MN 1220) were moderately vulnerable to cold damage to shoots in spring. An itemized summary of the relative hardiness, vulnerabilities, and timing of phenological stages of the 12 cultivars is provided to aid growers in selection and management of grape cultivars for Iowa climate. Based on hardiness and phenology, four of these cultivars (Frontenac, MN 1258, MN 1220, and MN 1200) have the lowest risk of issues related to cold temperatures.

Free access

László Szalay, Béla Timon, Szilvia Németh, János Papp, and Magdolna Tóth

frost, they can be partially replaced by the latent buds on older branches. From a practical point of view, the frost resistance and winter-hardiness of the flower buds thus deserves more detailed study. In preparation for the winter, the flower buds

Free access

Rita L. Hummel and Wilbur C. Anderson

Cabbage seed production in western Washington is at risk from freeze damage in the months of November to February. During the 1987-1988, 1988-1989 and 1989-1990 winters, the cold protection efficacy of 5 floating row covers (Agryl P17, Dewitt N-sulate, Reemay 2014, DuPont Typar, VisQueen Porous Row Cover) and straw was tested on field-grown cabbage. Air temperature in the cabbage crown, Tk50 of cabbage leaves, plant winter survival and seed yield were measured. During a severe freeze in February 1989, an average temperature of -11.1 °C was recorded in the uncovered controls while temperatures under the row covers were -6.7°C, -6.8°C and -8.4 °C under the N-sulate, VisQueen and Agryl covers, respectively. When compared to controls in June of 1989, row covers increased the survival of the more cold hardy `Brunswick' plants but did not significantly increase seed yields. The duration and severity of the February 1989 freeze was such that all of the less cold hardy `Golden Acre' plants were killed.

Open access

Renae E. Moran, Bryan J. Peterson, Gennaro Fazio, and John A. Cline

carbohydrate changes in stem tissues of Hydrangea in response to an experimental warm spell Plant Sci. 180 1 140 148 Quamme, H. Hampson, C. 2004 Winter hardiness measurements on 15 new apple cultivars J. Amer. Pomol. Soc. 58 2 98 107 https

Free access

Gustav Redalen

Free access

Daniel C. Milbocker