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Lenny Wells

percentage of edible kernel was calculated by dividing the kernel weight for the 50-nut sample by total nut weight. Pruning effects on resistance to wind damage were evaluated by estimating the percentage of storm-damaged trees in each plot 3 d following

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Astrid C. Newenhouse

Plants respond to wind in a manner similar to drought, but, in addition, leaves suffer physical or mechanical damage. Long-term wind stress results in smaller plants, less total leaf area, skewed tree growth because most of the branches grow toward the leeward side, and less yield than plants protected from wind. A simple procedure to simulate abrasion damage to leaves helps growers recognize wind damage to several fruit crops.

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Zai Q. Yang, Yong X. Li, Xiao P. Xue, Chuan R. Huang, and Bo Zhang

,050,000 ha, which accounts for 90% of the total area of horticultural facilities in China. Wind damage is one of the predominant types of meteorological damage to horticultural facilities. Because the structures of single-span plastic greenhouses and solar

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Richard G Greenland

Planting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as a living mulch with onions (Allium cepa L.) reduces soil erosion and protects the onions from wind damage. It can also reduce yield and size of onion bulbs if not managed correctly. In a 4-year study at the Oakes Irrigation Research Site in North Dakota, barley was planted in the spring at the same time that onions were direct-seeded. Barley rows were planted either parallel with or perpendicular to the onion rows. Barley was killed with fluazifop-P herbicide when ≈13, 18, 23, or 30 cm tall. Onion size and yields were reduced when barley was allowed to grow taller than 18 cm before killing it. Total onion yield was usually greater when barley was planted parallel with, rather than perpendicular to, onion rows. Chemical name used: (R)-2-[4-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenoxy]propanoic acid (fluazifop-P).

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Richard G Greenland

Planting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as a living mulch with onions (Allium cepa L.) reduces soil erosion and protects the onions from wind damage. It can also reduce yield and size of onion bulbs if not managed correctly. In a 4-year study at the Oakes Irrigation Research Site in North Dakota, barley was planted in the spring at the same time that onions were direct-seeded. Barley rows were planted either parallel with or perpendicular to the onion rows. Barley was killed with fluazifop-P herbicide when ≈13, 18, 23, or 30 cm tall. Onion size and yields were reduced when barley was allowed to grow taller than 18 cm before killing it. Total onion yield was usually greater when barley was planted parallel with, rather than perpendicular to, onion rows. Chemical name used: (R)-2-[4-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenoxy]propanoic acid (fluazifop-P).

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Thomas E. Marler and John H. Lawrence

compression stress. Trees with diseased roots or stems are generally more susceptible than healthy trees to wind damage ( Landis and Evans, 1974 ; Putz et al., 1983 ; Shaw and Taes, 1977 ; Whitney et al., 2002 ). Tissue defects compromise mechanical

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Ockert P.J. Stander, Jade North, Jan M. Van Niekerk, Tertia Van Wyk, Claire Love, and Martin J. Gilbert

evaluations were performed at the time of commercial harvest in July 2018 for the same fruit that were used for fruit quality evaluations. Fruit were examined for sunburn damage, light or severe wind damage, and any evidence of pest damage or chemical burn

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James McConnell

Cultivars of heliconias were evaluated for use in Guam as a cut flower and in the landscape. Forty-five cultivars were planted at three locations in Guam. Due to insufficient plant material, the evaluation was preliminary. Noteworthy differences were observed among the cultivars. Differences were noted in time to establish, frequency of flowering, and resistance to wind damage. Establishment required large quantities of water. Once established, some cultivars appeared to be drought-tolerant; however, feral pigs and carabao became a problem due to massive mechanical damage. Typhoons also caused severe damage to the foliage. Rhizomes did not suffer obvious damage, resulting in recovery within 1 year. Heliconias as a cut flower does not appear feasible. As a landscape plant, heliconias should be given further consideration.

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Joe Garofalo and Ruben Regalado

The soil in south Miami–Dade Co., Fla., consists of 4 to 6 inches of scarified limestone, officially a “very gravelly loam”. The bedrock reaches the surface; with little weathered material or organic matter. Heavy equipment is used to break up the rock, and a rock plow is used every few years to prevent re-compaction. Street trees in swales are installed in shallow holes dug in the rock and back-filled with crushed limestone. Golden trumpet tree, or yellow tab, Tabebuia chrysotricha, and copperpod, Peltophorum pterocarpum, are deciduous, tropical trees of medium size. Both are popular throughout south Florida because they produce spectacular displays of yellow flowers before the leaves emerge in the spring. When planted on rockland soil, both species present maintenance problems which suggest that they may not be good choices for use as street trees. In Summer 2005, after three hurricanes, both species were evaluated for long-term survival. Of 246 Tabebuia, 26% fell, 18% leaned (or 45% damaged), and 25% were missing, having been destroyed in previous years. Only one was broken, the rest fell due to root failure. Six large trees growing near buildings were standing. It appears that yellow tab is not a good street tree in rockland, not even for the short-term. Of 142 Peltophorum, 23% fell, 3% leaned (or 26% damaged), and 4% were missing. Due to an umbrella-like branching pattern, 15% had branches broken on the street side, caused by vehicles, not wind. Though it sustained only half the wind damage of yellow tab, copperpod is not a good street tree, due to poor branching patterns.

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Wheeler G. Foshee III, Brad E. Reeder, Raymond J. Kessler Jr., Larry W. Wells, Joseph M. Kemble, Edgar L. Vinson, Robert T. Boozer, and William A Dozier Jr

Production of high tunnel tomatoes and snapdragons was evaluated over a 2-year period at the Wiregrass Experiment Station, in southeastern Alabama. `BHN 640', `Florida 91', `Sunleaper', and `Carolina Gold', were evaluated in early Spring 2004. Results indicated that `BHN 640' outperformed `Florida 91' and `Carolina Gold' in early production of high tunnel grown tomatoes. A late Fall 2005 study examined `BHN 640' and `Florida 91'. Results indicated that `BHN 640' was superior to `Florida 91' in total marketable fruit. Season extension of both spring and fall tomato production were accomplished. A planting date study was completed in the early Spring 2005. The following four planting dates were evaluated: 31 Jan., 17 Feb., 4 Mar., and 25. Mar 2005. Wind damage to the high tunnel caused some mortality; however, the two earliest planting dates (31 Jan. and 17 Feb. 2005) produced over 10 lbs. of marketable tomatoes per plant. These were both superior to the last planting date of 25 Mar 2005. Cut snapdragons were evaluated for suitable colored mulch (red, white, or blue) and varieties for summer (`Opus Yellow', `Opus Rose', `Monaco Red', and `Potomac Early White') and fall (`Apollo Purple', `Apollo Yellow', `Monaco Red', `Monaco Rose', and `Potomac Early Orange') production. Results indicated that inflorescence length was affected by the color of mulch. The red mulch had increased inflorescence length compared to the white in Summer 2005. The Fall 2005 study revealed that white mulch had longer inflorescence length than the red or blue mulch. Some varietal differences were observed. The `Apollo Purple' had longer stem lengths than all other varieties for the fall study. The summer study revealed that `Opus Yellow' had longer inflorescence lengths than all others but stem lengths were all similar.