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Lenny Wells

percentage of edible kernel was calculated by dividing the kernel weight for the 50-nut sample by total nut weight. Pruning effects on resistance to wind damage were evaluated by estimating the percentage of storm-damaged trees in each plot 3 d following

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Astrid C. Newenhouse

Plants respond to wind in a manner similar to drought, but, in addition, leaves suffer physical or mechanical damage. Long-term wind stress results in smaller plants, less total leaf area, skewed tree growth because most of the branches grow toward the leeward side, and less yield than plants protected from wind. A simple procedure to simulate abrasion damage to leaves helps growers recognize wind damage to several fruit crops.

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Zai Q. Yang, Yong X. Li, Xiao P. Xue, Chuan R. Huang, and Bo Zhang

,050,000 ha, which accounts for 90% of the total area of horticultural facilities in China. Wind damage is one of the predominant types of meteorological damage to horticultural facilities. Because the structures of single-span plastic greenhouses and solar

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Richard G Greenland

Planting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as a living mulch with onions (Allium cepa L.) reduces soil erosion and protects the onions from wind damage. It can also reduce yield and size of onion bulbs if not managed correctly. In a 4-year study at the Oakes Irrigation Research Site in North Dakota, barley was planted in the spring at the same time that onions were direct-seeded. Barley rows were planted either parallel with or perpendicular to the onion rows. Barley was killed with fluazifop-P herbicide when ≈13, 18, 23, or 30 cm tall. Onion size and yields were reduced when barley was allowed to grow taller than 18 cm before killing it. Total onion yield was usually greater when barley was planted parallel with, rather than perpendicular to, onion rows. Chemical name used: (R)-2-[4-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenoxy]propanoic acid (fluazifop-P).

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Richard G Greenland

Planting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as a living mulch with onions (Allium cepa L.) reduces soil erosion and protects the onions from wind damage. It can also reduce yield and size of onion bulbs if not managed correctly. In a 4-year study at the Oakes Irrigation Research Site in North Dakota, barley was planted in the spring at the same time that onions were direct-seeded. Barley rows were planted either parallel with or perpendicular to the onion rows. Barley was killed with fluazifop-P herbicide when ≈13, 18, 23, or 30 cm tall. Onion size and yields were reduced when barley was allowed to grow taller than 18 cm before killing it. Total onion yield was usually greater when barley was planted parallel with, rather than perpendicular to, onion rows. Chemical name used: (R)-2-[4-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenoxy]propanoic acid (fluazifop-P).

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Thomas E. Marler and John H. Lawrence

compression stress. Trees with diseased roots or stems are generally more susceptible than healthy trees to wind damage ( Landis and Evans, 1974 ; Putz et al., 1983 ; Shaw and Taes, 1977 ; Whitney et al., 2002 ). Tissue defects compromise mechanical

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Ockert P.J. Stander, Jade North, Jan M. Van Niekerk, Tertia Van Wyk, Claire Love, and Martin J. Gilbert

evaluations were performed at the time of commercial harvest in July 2018 for the same fruit that were used for fruit quality evaluations. Fruit were examined for sunburn damage, light or severe wind damage, and any evidence of pest damage or chemical burn

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James McConnell

Cultivars of heliconias were evaluated for use in Guam as a cut flower and in the landscape. Forty-five cultivars were planted at three locations in Guam. Due to insufficient plant material, the evaluation was preliminary. Noteworthy differences were observed among the cultivars. Differences were noted in time to establish, frequency of flowering, and resistance to wind damage. Establishment required large quantities of water. Once established, some cultivars appeared to be drought-tolerant; however, feral pigs and carabao became a problem due to massive mechanical damage. Typhoons also caused severe damage to the foliage. Rhizomes did not suffer obvious damage, resulting in recovery within 1 year. Heliconias as a cut flower does not appear feasible. As a landscape plant, heliconias should be given further consideration.

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Gregory Reighard, Bruce Wood, Thomas Beckman, Michael Parker, and Gerard Krewer

Southeastern peach and pecan orchards weathered hurricanes in the 1980s and 1990s that left long-term effects on tree health and productivity. Pecan trees were affected the most, due to being blown down from strong winds and wet soils or suffering considerable damage to branches and immature nuts resulting in massive nut drops. Premature nut drop triggered or enhanced alternate bearing problems. Cultivar differences were evident in the ability of trees to withstand wind damage, with open-canopy trees being most resistant, but essentially all trees were damaged when they exceeded ≈17m in height. Hurricanes in older, alternate-bearing orchards sometimes broke enough limbs to induce sufficient vegetative regrowth to reestablish an equilibrium between sink (nuts) and source (foliage), thus enhancing yields in subsequent years. Peach trees which were less than 4.5 m tall and already harvested usually did not blow over unless the soil was very wet. However, peach trees were often twisted about the tree axis from the change in wind directions as the hurricane passed over. Afterwards, many trees leaned more than 30 °, especially trees less than 6 to 7 years of age. Root damage was significant and increased when trees were manually repositioned as additional root breakage occured from which these trees often later died. Trees not repositioned but instead retrained to vertical by pruning lived longer. Ambrosia beetles also attacked wind-stressed trees and caused a long-term decline. Slow moving hurricanes significantly damaged peach trees by waterlogging the soil, which killed roots and helped primary pathogens such as Phytophthora sp. to attack the tree crown. This was followed by secondary pathogens like Oxyporous sp., which attacked the internal woody cylinder. Initial trunk damage appeared localized; however, trees continued to die over a number of years. Experience showed that whole orchard removal on severe waterlogged sites was the best economical response.

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Richard P. Marini, John Barden, and James Schupp

Hurricanes or strong winds occasionally damage apple trees in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the U.S. Following the wind event, trees may be leaning or may be lying flat on the ground with extension root damage. Commercial growers generally pull trees upright while the ground is still moist and support the tree or just the trunk with various types of posts providing support to a height of about 60 to 200 cm above ground. In some cases the trees are pulled partially upright and propped up with boards or sand bags may be placed on the upwind side of the tree. Research data are not available for comparing various methods of treating the trees following wind damage, but field observations indicate that trees perform well if trees are pulled upright within 2 or 3 weeks after the wind event. Data from rootstock research plantings from several states indicate that tree anchorage is influenced by the combination of scion cultivar and root-stock. In Virginia in 1989, Hurricane Hugo brought wind gusts of about 95 km·h–1 when the ground was completely saturated by heavy rains. Trees in several plantings designed to evaluate rootstocks or cultivars were evaluated for the extent of leaning following the storm. The percentage of leaning trees on M.26 EMLA was <10% for `McIntosh' and `Golden Delicious' and 40% for `Delicious'. Susceptibility of trees on M.7A was also influenced by scion cultivar, with 0% for `Golden Delicious' and `Empire', 2% for `Redchief Delicious', and 88% for `TripleRed Delicious'.