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Philip J. Kauth and Hector E. Pérez

industry, a small market focuses on the sale of annual and perennial wildflowers ( Pérez et al., 2010 ). In Florida, native plant industry members typically produce and grow FNWs from seeds. Native wildflowers and seeds, in turn, are often used for

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Iryna Andrenko, Thayne Montague, Cynthia McKenney, and Russell Plowman

Cabrera, 2010 ; Zollinger et al., 2007 ). With increased demand, and greater costs for high-quality water, implementation of water-wise landscapes is critical ( Kjelgren et al., 2000 ; Paudel et al., 2019 ). Native wildflowers are considered to be

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Genhua Niu, Denise S. Rodriguez, and Cynthia McKenney

within the same species. Wildflowers are popular plants in water-wise, low-maintenance landscapes. Planting wildflowers in landscapes could reduce mowing costs and improve soil erosion and soil stabilization ( Bretzel et al., 2009 ). Planting wildflowers

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Gina M. Angelella, Laura Stange, Holly L. Scoggins, and Megan E. O’Rourke

the factors affecting PR establishment and effectiveness. Specifically, how can wildflower establishment success be maximized to obtain the full diversity of the mix planted ( Williams et al., 2015 )? Furthermore, how does PR establishment success and

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Hector Eduardo Pérez, Carrie Reinhardt Adams, Michael E. Kane, Jeffrey G. Norcini, Glenn Acomb, and Claudia Larsen

, personal communication). Indigenous, herbaceous, annual, and perennial wildflowers represent one component of native plant product choices. Typically, native wildflowers are sold as seeds, although more popular species are provided as containerized material

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Ouina C. Rutledge and Patricia S. Holloway

The germination, establishment, survival, and public preference of four wild-flower seed mixes were evaluated in relation to irrigation and seasonal sowing date. The mixes included two commercial nonindigenous wildflower mixes, a commercial mix with indigenous and nonindigenous wildflowers, and an experimental mix composed exclusively of Alaska native wildflowers. The two latter mixes were sown with and without `Tundra' glaucous bluegrass (Poa glauca). The two nonindigenous mixes exhibited the greatest seedling establishment during the first season. Fall sowing and irrigation during seed germination significantly increased species establishment for all mixes. In the second season, 11 nonindigenous species did not reappear, whereas all of the indigenous species reappeared. The experimental mix had the greatest species richness of the six mixes in the second season. The addition of grass to the mixes did not significantly affect wildflower species richness in either the first or second season. Survey respondents preferred the nonindigenous wildflower mixes to those containing Alaska native wildflowers because of a greater mix of colors that appeared earlier in the first season than the other mixes. Alaska native species recommended for wildflower mixes include Polemonium acutiflorum, Lupinus arcticus, Hedysarum mackenzii, Arnica alpina, and Aster sibiricus.

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Cynthia B. McKenney, Sandra A. Balch, Victor Hegemann, and Susan P. Metz

Mealy blue sage ( Salvia farinacea var. farinacea Benth) is an attractive wildflower native to a wide range in the southern United States, including Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma ( Correll and Johnston, 1970 ; Diggs et al., 1999 ). Mealy blue

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Daniel D. Beran, Roch E. Gaussoin, and Robert A. Masters

Native wildflowers are important components of grassland communities and low-maintenance wildflower seed mixtures. Weed interference limits successful establishment of native wildflowers from seed. Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of the imidazolinone herbicides imazethapyr, imazapic, and imazaquin on the establishment of blackeyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta L.), upright prairieconeflower [Ratibida columnifera (Nutt) Woot. and Standl.], spiked liatris [Liatris spicata (L.) Willd.], blanket flower (Gaillardia aristata Pursh.), purple coneflower [Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.], and spotted beebalm (Monarda punctata L.). Wildflower response to the herbicide treatments was variable and appeared to be influenced by the level of weed interference. Establishment of the native wildflowers after application of imazethapyr or imazapic at 70 g·ha-1 a.i. was generally improved at sites with greater weed interference. Emergence and density of wildflowers was often reduced by imazapic in sites with low weed interference. Flower density during the second growing season was usually either improved or not reduced by either imazethapyr or imazapic. Based on these findings, imazethapyr and imazapic can reduce weed interference and improve the establishment of some native wildflowers in areas with high weed infestations. Chemical names used: (±) -2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-5-methyl-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid (imazapic); 2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid (imazaquin); 2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-5-ethyl-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid (imazethapyr).

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W.L. Corley

Several approaches can be taken to minimize weed intrusion of wildflower plantings. To suppress existing weed seeds, the primary and most important cultural practice is proper seedbed preparation. Research has shown that short-term preemergent herbicides, multiple tillings, solarization, and fumigation can result in good weed control during the initial year of wildflower establishment. Other strategies include increased seeding rates, use of aggressive species, and selective herbicides.

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Kaitlin A. Hopkins, Charles R. Hall, Michael A. Arnold, Marco A. Palma, Melinda Knuth, and Brent Pemberton

R. columnifera is a wildflower that exhibits a large variation in both floral and vegetative characteristics [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2018]. Consumers can currently purchase this plant via