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Kagiso Given Shadung, Phatu William Mashela and Maboko Samuel Mphosi

Fruit of wild cucumber and wild watermelon are used in medicinal systems, nutrition, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and pesticidal industries ( Lee et al., 2010 ; Mashela et al., 2011 ; Thies et al., 2010 ; Van Wyk and Wink, 2012 ; Van Wyk et al

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Judy A. Thies, Jennifer J. Ariss, Richard L. Hassell, Sharon Buckner and Amnon Levi

watermelon. Rootstock genotypes. Seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ was grafted onto five wild watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus var. citroides ) germplasm lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory (RKVL 301, RKVL 302, RKVL 303, RKVL 316, and RKVL 318

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W. Patrick Wechter, Chandrasekar Kousik, Melanie McMillan and Amnon Levi

Fusarium wilt (FW) is a major disease of watermelon in North America and around the world. Control of this disease is difficult because the soilborne causal agent Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) produces chlamydospores that remain infectious in the soil for many years. Although various levels of resistance to Fon Races 0 and 1 exist in watermelon cultivars, no resistance to Race 2 or 3 has been reported. In this study, we used seed and seedling inoculation procedures to screen 110 U.S. PIs of wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) for resistance to Race 2 FW. Of these 110 accessions, 15 showed significantly higher resistance to Fon Race 2 than that found in the watermelon cultivars Sugar Baby or Charleston Grey as well as in the C. lanatus var. citroides PI 296341 that was reported to contain resistance to FW. PI 271769, another C. lanatus var. citroides that was previously reported as containing resistance to FW, is among the 15 resistant accessions described here. These 15 accessions are potential sources for resistance to Race 2 FW in watermelon breeding.

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Yunyan Sheng, Feishi Luan, Faxing Zhang and Angela R. Davis

Genetic diversity among 95 watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) ecotypes was evaluated and compared with representative Chinese, American, Japanese, and Russian watermelon cultigens, landraces, and a wild watermelon relative (Trichosanthes kirilowii). Open-pollinated, hybrid, and inbred lines were included for most of the ecotypes and are hereafter collectively referred to as cultigens unless an ecotype group is being discussed. Morphological characteristics (including days to flower, female to male flower ratio, branch number, fruit length and diameter ratio, fruit soluble solid content, fruit yield, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to estimate genetic diversity. Of 398 watermelon primer pairs tested, 9.5% (38) produced polymerase chain reaction amplicons in watermelon. Of these 38 primer pairs, the average number of polymorphic bands among the 96 cultigens was 2.4, even with 12 primer pairs demonstrating monomorphic banding patterns. Based on the SSR data, the genetic similarity coefficients were calculated and a dendrogram constructed. All cultigens were clustered to six groups. The wild species and landraces formed distant clusters from the cultivated watermelon. The genetic similarity coefficients within the Chinese cultigens ranged from 0.37 to 0.99, but except for a wild relative to watermelon, most cultigens were closely related. The genetic distance among non-Chinese cultigens ranged from 0.67 to 0.91 with an average of 0.88. When combined morphological traits and molecular traits were assessed, Russian and U.S. fruit were more genetically similar to each other than to Chinese and Japanese cultigens. Crossing Russian and/or U.S. cultigens with Chinese or Japanese cultigens should thus improve genetic diversity and introduce new traits for the resulting watermelon cultigens.

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Judy A. Thies, Amnon Levi, Jennifer J. Ariss and Richard L. Hassell

watermelon grafted on rootstocks of RKVL-318 wild watermelon rootstock, selected commercial rootstocks, and self-grafted and non-grafted ‘Tri-X 313’ watermelon, Charleston, SC, 2009 and 2010. Fig. 1. ( A ) Root-knot nematode-resistant RKVL 318 wild watermelon

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Haiying Zhang, Guoyi Gong, Shaogui Guo, Yi Ren, Yong Xu and Kai-Shu Ling

tolerance ( R ≤ 1.0) included 12 accessions of the wild watermelon of C. lanatus var. citroides and 13 accessions of C. lanatus var. lanatus . Interestingly, 24 of the total 25 strongest drought tolerant accessions were originally collected in Africa

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Jordan L. Hartman, Penelope Perkins-Veazie and Todd C. Wehner

without excessive plot replication. Literature Cited Akashi, K. Miyake, C. Yokota, A. 2001 Citrulline, a novel compatible solute in drought-tolerant wild watermelon leaves, is an efficient hydroxyl radical scavenger FEBS Lett. 508 3 438 442 Akashi, K

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Lei Gao, Shengjie Zhao, Xuqiang Lu, Nan He and Wenge Liu

between cultivated watermelon inbred ‘203Z’ and wild watermelon subspecies ‘PI271769’. ‘203Z’ and ‘PI271769’, used as breeding line and germplasm resources, were conserved at the Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

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Angela R. Davis, Charles L. Webber III, Wayne W. Fish, Todd C. Wehner, Stephen King and Penelope Perkins-Veazie

novel compatible solute in drought-tolerant wild watermelon leaves, is an efficient hydroxyl radical scavenger FEBS Lett. 508 438 442 Boileau, T.W. Liao, Z. Kim, S. Lemeshow, S. Erdman, J.W. Jr Clinton, S.K. 2003 Prostate carcinogenesis in N

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ingredients (cucurbitacins) obtained from chopped fruit of wild cucumber and wild watermelon. Temperatures below 52 °C allowed the proliferation of fungal growth. Above this temperature, cucurbitacins declined gradually. For mass production of cucurbitacins