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Thomas G. Ranney, Connor F. Ryan, Lauren E. Deans and Nathan P. Lynch

and 9 ( Ehrendorfer et al., 1968 ; Raven, 1975 ; Stebbins, 1971 ) and increased over time with repeated cycles of whole genome duplication events ( Soltis et al., 2003 ). Genomes can further expand through amplification of noncoding, repetitive DNA

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Kelly M. Oates, Thomas G. Ranney and Darren H. Touchell

Rudbeckia spp. are adaptable and valuable ornamental wildflowers. Development of new varieties of Rudbeckia spp., with improved commercial characteristics, would be highly desirable. Interspecific hybridization and induced polyploidy may be avenues for improvement within the genus. The objective of this study was to evaluate fertility, morphology, phenology of flowering, and perennialness (overwintering survival) for lines of diploid and induced allotetraploids of R. subtomentosa × hirta and diploid and autotetraploids of R. subtomentosa ‘Henry Eilers’. Polyploid lines were developed and propagated in vitro and then grown ex vitro in a randomized complete block design with 12 replications. Compared with their diploid counterparts, autotetraploid lines of R. subtomentosa ‘Henry Eilers’ had similar internode lengths, plant heights, number of stems, flowering times (date at first anthesis), and fall and spring survival (100%); reduced number of inflorescences and male and female fertility; and increased inflorescence diameters. Compared with their diploid counterparts, allotetraploids of R. subtomentosa × hirta had similar internode lengths, reduced number of inflorescences, delayed flowering times, and increased pollen staining. Allotetraploids had limited male and female fertility compared with no detectable fertility in their diploid counterparts. Plant height and number of stems either decreased or showed no change with induced allotetraploidy. Spring survival of diploid hybrid genotypes ranged from 0% to 82% and was not improved in the allotetraploid hybrids. For a given genotype, some polyploidy lines varied significantly in certain morphological traits (e.g., plant height) indicating somaclonal variation may have developed in vitro or there were variable genomic or epigenetic changes associated with induced polyploidy.

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Joseph J. King and Michael J. Havey

The bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) is a diploid with an very large nuclear genome of 15300 Mbp/1C (107× arabidopsis, 16× tomato, 6× maize). We developed a low-density genetic map with morphological, RAPD, and RFLP markers to examine genome organization and to study QTL controlling phenotypically correlated bulb quality traits. A mapping population of 58 F3 families was derived from a cross of the inbreds Brigham Yellow Globe 15-23 (BYG) × Alisa Craig 43 (AC). These inbreds are distinct in solids, storability, pungency, and bulb shape. Analysis of 580 RAPD primers detected 53 (9%) polymorphisms between BYG and AC, but only 12 (2%) segregated at expected ratios among F3 families. Using probes from onion cDNA libraries and four restriction enzymes, 214 RFLPs were identified between mapping parents. A 112-point map includes 96 RFLPs, 13 RAPDs, a locus controlling complementary red bulb color, and two loci hybridizing with a clone of the enzyme alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4), which produces the flavors characteristic of Allium species. Duplicated loci were detected by ≈25% of RFLP probes and were unlinked, loosely linked (2 to 30 cM), or tightly linked (<2 cM). This frequency of duplication was comparable to species with polyploid ancestors (paleopolyploids) and was higher than that found in most true diploids. However, the distribution of duplicated loci suggests that, in contrast to whole genome duplications typical of paleopolyploids, the contemporary size and structure of the onion genome may be a product of intrachromosomal duplications (cryptopolyploidy) and subsequent structural rearrangements.

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Dongfeng Liu, Junbei Ni, Ruiyuan Wu and Yuanwen Teng

papaya L.), and the complex multigene family in pear might be related to the whole-genome duplication from nine chromosomes of the Rosaceae ancestor ( Wu et al., 2013 ). Consequently, the whole-genome duplication may have been the origin of the large

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David J. Roberts and Dennis J. Werner

cultivars HortScience 45 1029 1033 Schranz, E. Edger, P.P. Mohammadin, S. 2012 Ancient whole genome duplications novelty and diversification: The WGD radiation lag-time model Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 15 147 153 Soltis, D.E. Burleigh, J.G. 2009 Surviving the K

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Lisa Alexander

associated with Hydrangea production. Polyploidy—also known as whole genome duplication—has long been associated with changes to ornamental traits in plants. Increasing the number of chromosome sets in plant cells often leads to thicker stems and leaves, a

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Kimberly Shearer and Thomas G. Ranney

dogwoods (DW) comprising subgenus Arctocrania , and the cornelian cherries (CC) comprising subgenus Cornus . Polyploidy, also referred to as whole genome duplication, has played a significant role in the evolution and diversification of angiosperms

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Ryan N. Contreras and Luigi Meneghelli

Mill. ( Bouvier et al., 1994 ), and Rosa L. ( Kermani et al., 2003 ). Our goal was to induce whole genome duplication of ‘Otto Luyken’ and ‘Schipkaensis’ using in vitro application of oryzalin. Materials and Methods Plant material and medium. In vitro

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Jin Jiao, Xing Liu, Juyou Wu, Guohua Xu and Shaoling Zhang

-coding gene families, including whole-genome duplication (WGD) or segmental duplication, tandem duplication, and rearrangement at the gene and chromosomal level. We detected the origins of duplicate genes for the MAPK genes family in five Rosaceae genomes with

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Yunqing Zhu, Wenfang Zeng, Xiaobei Wang, Lei Pan, Liang Niu, Zhenhua Lu, Guochao Cui and Zhiqiang Wang

). In the present study, 71 PMEs were identified in the peach genome, of which 36 were distributed in 15 clusters on peach chromosomes, suggesting that whole-genome duplication and tandem duplication contribute to the expansion of the large family of