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Scott A. Derby and L. Eric Hinesley

Germination and growth of atlantic white cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.] was evaluated in response to four container volumes (98 to 530 cm3), two substrates [North Carolina Forest Service (NCFS) container mix [3 canadian peat: 2 coarse vermiculite: 1.5 perlite (by volume), and 3 composted pine bark: 1 peat (by volume)], two controlled-release fertilizers [Osmocote 15N–4.0P–10.0K (15N–9P2O5–12K2O), 12- to 14-month southern formulation, with micros; and Polyon 18N–2.6P–10.0K (18N–6P2O5–12K2O) with micros, 9-month formulation], and three irrigation frequencies (2, 3, or 4 times daily). Although growth increased up to the maximum container volume (530 cm3), the optimum for 1-year-old seedlings appeared to be 164 to 262 cm3. The higher peat content and water holding capacity of the NCFS substrate yielded better growth than 3 bark: 1 peat. Osmocote yielded larger and heavier plants than Polyon, probably owing to more available phosphorus in the former. Irrigation three times daily was optimum. Suitable manipulation of container volume, substrate, fertilizer, and irrigation should yield high quality containerized atlantic white cedar seedlings.

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Laura G. Jull and Frank A. Blazich

Seeds of six provenances (Escambia Co., Ala.; Santa Rosa Co., Fla.; Wayne Co., N.C.; Burlington Co., N.J.; New London Co., Conn.; and Barnstable Co., Mass.) of Atlantic white-cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.] were stratified (moist-prechilled) for 0, 30, 60, or 90 days at 4 °C. Following stratification, seeds were germinated at 25 °C or an 8/16-hour thermoperiod of 30/20 °C with daily photoperiods at each temperature of 0 (total darkness), 1, or 24 hours. The germination of nonstratified seed did not exceed 18%. Seeds germinated at 25 °C required 60 to 90 days stratification to maximize germination. In contrast, 30 days stratification maximized germination at 30/20 °C. Regardless of stratification duration, germination was generally lower at 25 °C than at 30/20 °C for each provenance. Averaged over all treatments, seeds of the Alabama provenance exhibited the greatest germination (61%), followed by those from Florida (45%), with the remaining provenances ranging from 20% to 38%. However, specific treatments for each provenance induced germination >50%. Germination of seeds not exposed to light was <8%, in contrast with 48% and 55% germination for daily photoperiods of 1 and 24 hours, respectively. Seeds from each of the provenances, except for Alabama, exhibited an obligate light requirement when germinated at 25 °C. At 30/20 °C, the North Carolina, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Massachusetts provenances required light for germination, whereas the Alabama and Florida provenances did not.

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Lyn A. Gettys and Kimberly A. Moore

Aquatic and wetland restoration and mitigation has become an increasingly important activity that improves ecosystem services and provides habitat for native flora and fauna ( Brix, 1994 ). This has created a growing market for wetland plants

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Lyn A. Gettys and Kimberly A. Moore

Wetland restoration is critical for improving ecosystem services, but many aquatic plant nurseries do not have facilities like those typically used for large-scale plant production. We questioned if we could grow littoral aquatic plant species in a variety of substrates and irrigation methods similar to those used for traditional greenhouse production. Plants were grown in pots with drainage holes that were filled with potting substrate, topsoil, coarse builders’ sand, or a 50/50 mix of topsoil and builders’ sand. These substrates were amended with 2 g of 15N–3.9P–10K controlled-release fertilizer per liter of substrate and were watered using either overhead irrigation or subirrigation. Plants were grown for 16 weeks, then scored for quality and height before a destructive harvest. Blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium angustifolium) and arrow arum (Peltandra virginica) performed best when subirrigated and cultured in potting substrate or sand. Golden club (Orontium aquaticum) and lemon bacopa (Bacopa caroliniana) grew best when plants were cultured in potting substrate and maintained under subirrigation. These experiments provide a framework for using existing greenhouses to produce these littoral species and give guidance to growers who wish to produce plants for the restoration market.

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treatments. Current fungicides recommended for control of anthracnose canker are not reliably effective for long-term cider apple production in a maritime climate. Greenhouse Production of Native Aquatic Plants Wetland restoration is critical for improving

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Louisiana's youth about wetland restoration by presenting students with hands-on opportunities to establish wetland species seedlings and transplant mature species into areas experiencing erosion. Karsh et al. (p. 813) found that students who were taught

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Kathryn Karsh, Edward Bush, Janice Hinson, and Pamela Blanchard

wetland restoration projects. A 10 × 10-ft can yard is set up at each school and is used as a growing area for the student's seedlings. Coastal Roots students are responsible for the health and progress of their seedlings from seed to a finished product

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Edward W. Bush and Pamela B. Blanchard

Roots: Seedling nursery program for wetland restoration 16 Feb. 2009 < http://coastalroots.lsu.edu >. Coleman, E.B. Bush, E.W. 2002 Putting down roots: Starting a seedling nursery for wetland replanting 25 May 2007 < http://nsgl.gso.uri.edu/lsu/lsuh02002

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Mary Hockenberry Meyer, Stan Hokanson, Susan Galatowitsch, and James Luby

Meadow: Revegetation practices in a seasonal wetland restoration in Minnesota Ecol. Res. 23 173 181 Cook, R.E. 2006 Botanical collections as a resource for research Public Garden 1 19 21 Crane, P.R. Hopper, S.D. Raven, P.H. Stevenson, D.W. 2009 Plant

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Shangchun Hu, Gail Hansen, and Paul Monaghan

://www.municode.com/library/ > Nassauer, J.I. 1997 Cultural sustainability: Aligning aesthetics and ecology, p. 65–83. In: J.I. Nassauer (ed.). Placing nature: Culture and landscape ecology. Island Press, Washington, DC Nassauer, J.I. 2004 Monitoring the success of metropolitan wetland