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Peter M.A. Toivonen, Frank Kappel, Sabina Stan, Darrell-Lee McKenzie, and Rod Hocking

A convenient and reliable method that used a specially designed tool to apply a uniform bruising force in situ was developed to assess the relative susceptibility to fruit surface pitting in sweet cherry. Assessment of pitting with a visual scale after 2 weeks of 1 °C storage was found to be in close agreement with measurements of pit diameter. Using this method `Bing' showed the greatest susceptibility to pitting in both years of the study and `Bing', `Lapins', and `Sweetheart' cherries showed a decline in susceptibility as fruit matured. The predictive value of fruit firmness at harvest, fruit respiration at harvest, and weight loss in storage was assessed in relation to the severity of pitting. The model to best describe pitting was found to include all three physiological variables (firmness, respiration, and weight loss). While an acceptable model was obtained when combining all three cultivars, the best models were achieved when each cultivar was considered separately. It was concluded that there are likely unmeasured variables involved in determining susceptibility to pitting. Hence the best approach to predicting pitting susceptibility is the application of the pit-induction method described in this work.

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Sun Tay Choi, Judith Abbott, Kyu Seob Chang, Ji Gang Kim, and Chae Il Lim

The relation between sensory and instrumental measurements of apple texture was investigated to find an effective postharvest texture measurement method of apple. Then nondestructive evaluation of texture and weight loss using NIR was conducted. `Gala' and `Fuji' apples were sampled during storage at 20 °C with 80% to 85% relative humidity. Instrumental measurements included penetration, compression, and bending tests with a texture analyzer, and sensory attributes were finger firmness, hardness, crispness, and mealiness. The penetration test was more effective for postharvest texture measurement than compression and bending tests in the correlation between sensory texture and instrumental measurement. As texture evaluation parameters, elastic modulus (slope before rupture point) and work (area to penetrate) of penetration test were more sensitive than maximum force. Maximum force, generally used as the parameter for texture evaluation, had a little problem under influence of weight loss in `Fuji'; however, elastic modulus and work could detect the texture change of apple under influence of weight loss as well as softening. In the investigation of possibility of nondestructive evaluation using NIR of texture, the MLR analysis for elastic modulus determination of penetration test showed good correlation (R = 0.82, SEP = 2.66) in combination of two cultivars. Also, in the weight loss evaluation, MLR analysis showed the prediction correlation of 0.79 and SEP 1.08 in combination of two cultivars. These results showed the possibility of nondestructive evaluation using NIR of postharvest texture and weight loss.

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M.K Upadhyaya, S.I. Shibairo, and P.M.A. Toivonen

To understand the relationship between preharvest water stress and postharvest weight loss, carrot cultivars Eagle and Paramount were grown in muck soil in 6-L pots (eight carrots per pot) in a greenhouse at the Univ. of British Columbia. The plants were watered to field capacity every second day for 4 months before receiving 100, 75, 50, and 25% field capacity water stress treatments, henceforth referred to as low, medium, high, and severe water stress, respectively. Postharvest weight loss of carrots was monitored at 13°C and 32% relative humidity. Carrot weight loss increased with duration of storage in all treatments. It was low in the low-water-stressed and high in severely water-stressed carrots for both cultivars. Root crown diameter, weight, water, and osmotic potential decreased, and specific surface area and relative solute leakage increased with increasing preharvest water stress. Water potential followed by relative solute leakage were the variables that affected weight loss the most. The results show that carrots adjust to water stress by lowering water and osmotic potential. Preharvest water stress lowers membrane integrity of carrot roots making them lose more moisture during storage.

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Robert D. Hagenmaier and Robert A. Baker

Valencia oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Valencia] and Marsh grapefruit [Citrus paradisi Macf.] were treated with single or double layers of coating. In cases where two coatings were applied, the first coating was a moisture-barrier wax; the second was either polyethylene wax or a mixture of shellac and resin ester. The inner coating reduced weight loss, and the outer coating imparted gloss. Fruit gloss, as measured by reflectometer, decreased more rapidly during 1 week at 20C with a single glossy coating than with the same coating applied as a second layer over a wax-based first coating. For citrus fruit, using resin ester or shellac as a high-gloss second coating tended to overly restrict the exchange of O2 and CO2; however, two layers of wax did not.

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Manuel Baez-Sañudo, Jorge Siller-Cepeda, Rosalba Contreras-Martinez, Laura Contreras-Angulo, Rosabel Velez, and Dolores Muy-Rangel

Mango `Keitt' is characterized by a poor external color development and a slightly high transpiration rate during ripening, which affect external quality. When fruit is ripening, the peel turns from a green to yellowish or dull green color, and the peel has no shine. We evaluated the effectiveness of three film coatings to reduce weight loss, improve appearance, and maintain quality during ripening of `Keitt' mango fruits. Four lots of fruits were obtained from a packinghouse in late September and transported to the laboratory. Each lot was sprayed at the commercial recommended rates with SemperFresh, Natural Shine, TFC 210, and FreshSeal coatings. Water sprayed fruits were used as a control. After applications, fruits were stored for 15 days at 22 °C and 85% RH to simulate marketing conditions. Quality parameters evaluated included weight loss (%), firmness, external and internal colors (hue, chroma, l), respiration rate (CO2 production), and chemical parameters such as pH, titratable acidity and °Brix. After 15 days, fruits coated with Natural Shine reduced 50% of the weight loss as compared to control fruits, while fruits coated with FreshSeal and SemperFresh reduced only 1.7% and 3.5%, respectively. Firmness declined from 155 N to 10 N during storage, being more evident on day 10, when fruits were table ripe. Fruits treated with SemperFresh were softer as compared with the other treatments. Titratable acidity decreased from 0.8% to 0.2% during storage and °Brix increased from 13 to 17–18 in all treatments. Fruit coated with Natural Shine had reduced weight and firmness loss. Additionally, fruits developed a better external color, with lower hue values, higher chromaticity and luminosity, which improve fruit appearance.

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İbrahim Kahramanoğlu and Serhat Usanmaz

Acedo, 2019 ). In addition, MAP is an important nanotechnology for maintaining postharvest quality and upgrade the storage duration of fresh produce ( Caleb et al., 2013 ). It has been reported to reduce respiration, which prevents weight loss and

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Andrew J. Macnish, Malkeet S. Padda, Francine Pupin, Pavlos I. Tsouvaltzis, Angelos I. Deltsidis, Charles A. Sims, Jeffrey K. Brecht, and Elizabeth J. Mitcham

. Fruit quality evaluation. One clamshell from each sample flat was weighed at the beginning and end of shipment and again after a 2-d shelf life at 68 °F to enable calculation of weight loss. The quality of all fruit within two replicate clamshells per

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Kate M. Maguire, Nigel H. Banks, Alexander Lang, and Ian L. Gordon

Research quantified contributions to total variation in water vapor permeance from sources such as cultivar and harvest date in `Braeburn', `Pacific Rose', `Granny Smith', and `Cripps Pink' apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. In a study on `Braeburn' fruit from eight orchards in Central Otago, New Zealand, >50% of the total variation in permeance was associated with harvest date. This variation was the result of a large increase in water vapor permeance from 16.6 to 30.2 (se = 0.88, df = 192) nmol·s-1·m-2·Pa-1 over the 8 week experimental harvest period. Fruit to fruit differences accounted for 22% of total variation in permeance. Interaction between harvest date and orchard effects explained 7% of the total variation, indicating that fruit from the different orchards responded in differing ways to advancing harvest date. Tree effects accounted for only 1% of the total variation. Weight loss from respiration [at 20 °C and ≈60% relative humidity (RH)] comprised 3.04±0.11% of total weight loss, averaged across all harvest dates. In a second study of fruit of four apple cultivars, almost 30% of the total variation in water vapor permeance was associated with cultivar differences. Mean water vapor permeance for `Braeburn', `Pacific Rose', `Granny Smith', and `Cripps Pink' fruit was 44, 35, 17, and 20 (se = 4.3, df = 300) nmol·s-1·m-2·Pa-1 respectively. Over 20% of the total variation was associated with harvest date and arose from a large increase in water vapor permeance from 21 nmol·s-1·m-2·Pa-1 at first harvest to 46 nmol·s-1·m-2·Pa-1 (se = 5.3, df = 200) at final harvest, 10 weeks later, on average across all four cultivars. There was large fruit to fruit variation in water vapor permeance accounting for 25% of the total variation in permeance values. Tree effects only accounted for 4% of the total variation. Water vapor permeance in `Pacific Rose'` and `Braeburn' increased substantially with later harvest but values remained relatively constant for `Granny Smith' and `Cripps Pink'. A simple mathematical model was developed to predict weight loss from `Braeburn' fruit. Based on these findings, it appears worthwhile to increase the stringency of measures to control weight loss in `Braeburn' and `Pacific Rose'` apples, particularly those harvested late in the season.

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Derek P. Whitelock, Gerald H. Brusewitz, Michael W. Smith, and Xihai Zhang

This study examined the effects of high humidity (>95%) and airflow on fresh peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] quality. Peaches were stored in high airflow at 98%, 88%, and 67% relative humidity (RH) (6, 5.6, and 4.3C, respectively) and negligible airflow at 100%, 95%, and 81% RH (6, 5.6, and 4.3C, respectively). Fruit weight loss, penetrometer force, impact variables, and bruise occurrence from a single 15-cm drop impact were measured over 20 days of storage. Fruit stored at a low vapor pressure deficit had a lower rate of weight loss, with drop impact values characteristic of firmer fruit than fruit stored at higher vapor pressure deficits. High airflow increased weight loss and decreased fruit firmness, but had only a secondary effect on localized humidity. Penetrometer force and bruise occurrence were less sensitive than drop impact variables in detecting differences in fruit firmness due to treatments.

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JoAnn Robbins and Patrick P. Moore

The effects of delayed precooling on fresh red raspberry fruit during storage was determined. Precooling was delayed for 0.5 to 12 hours, followed by cold storage for 8 days, with subsequent storage at 20C for 24 hours. Weight loss was greater with increasing delays of precooling. Fruit that lost more weight during the delay period lost less during the subsequent S-day storage at 0C. The exception was fruit held for 12 hours before precooling. Weight loss during the final 24 hours at 20C showed no pattern. Cumulative weight loss at the end of the storage treatments was similar regardless of delay of precooling. Fruit strength was reduced by any delay of precooling. The effect of delayed precooling on color was not consistent in the 2 years using different cultivars. The results indicate that fruit should be precooled as quickly as possible after harvest for long-distance fresh marketing.