This review describes the differences in weed management that must be addressed when plastic culture is added to the production cycle. Three specific areas are addressed: weed management under plastic mulch, weed management between plastic mulch, and weed management under row covers.
A. Richard Bonanno
Marco Fontanelli, Luisa Martelloni, Michele Raffaelli, Christian Frasconi, Marco Ginanni, and Andrea Peruzzi
compromising its commercial quality. Mechanical weed control is widely used for both presowing and postemergence weed management. Thermal weed control is increasingly used in both preemergence of the crop (stale seedbed technique) and postemergence in heat
Leslie A. Weston
Allelopathy can be defined as an important mechanism of plant interference mediated by the addition of plant-produced secondary products to the soil rhizosphere. Allelochemicals are present in all types of plants and tissues and are released into the soil rhizosphere by a variety of mechanisms, including decomposition of residues, volatilization and root exudation. Allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse, and may offer potential for development of future herbicides. In the past, allelopathy was described by the Romans as a process resulting in the “sickening” of the soil; in particular, chickpea (Cicer arietinum) was described as problematic when successively cropped with other species. Other early plant scientists, such as De Candolle in the 1800s, first described the ability of plant roots to produce toxic exudates. More recently, research has focused on development of weed management strategies using allelopathic crop residues, mechanism of allelochemical action, and gene regulation of allelochemical production. This paper briefly describes a variety of weed and crop species that establishes some form of potent allelopathic interference, either with other crops or weeds, in agricultural settings, in the managed landscape, or in naturalized settings. Recent research suggests that allelopathic properties can render one species more invasive to native species and thus potentially detrimental to both agricultural and naturalized settings. In contrast, allelopathic crops offer strong potential for the development of cultivars that are more highly weed suppressive in managed settings. A new challenge that exists for plant scientists is to generate additional information on allelochemical mechanisms of release, selectivity and persistence, mode of action, and genetic regulation. Armed with this specific information, we can further protect plant biodiversity and enhance weed management strategies in a variety of ecosystems.
Renata L. Solan, Jed B. Colquhoun, Richard A. Rittmeyer, and Daniel J. Heider
( Goldburg, 1992 ). Thus, research has been conducted with the goal of developing alternative integrated weed management techniques in potato and other vegetable cropping systems. Such techniques include changes in crop density ( Bussan et al., 2007 ; Conley
Renee H. Harkins, Bernadine C. Strik, and David R. Bryla
used for production of processed fruit. Trailing blackberries ripen in midsummer in Oregon and Washington and are usually machine-harvested ( Strik and Finn, 2012 ). Weed management is considered critical for good production in berry crops ( Barney et
W. Carroll Johnson III, David B. Langston Jr., Daniel D. MacLean, F. Hunt Sanders Jr., Reid L. Torrance, and Jerry W. Davis
season-long weed control. However, sequential cultivations at regular intervals may provide the foundation for a successful integrated system of weed control in transplanted onion. To date, there has been no research on weed management in organic Vidalia
Renee H. Harkins, Bernadine C. Strik, and David R. Bryla
minimize fertilizer inputs and sustain good plant growth and yield without use of chemicals not certified as organic are therefore needed for continued expansion of organic production of blackberries. The common weed management methods used in organic
Sanjeev K. Bangarwa, Jason K. Norsworthy, Ronald L. Rainey, and Edward E. Gbur
bromide is a major contributor to ozone depletion and therefore is being phased out of U.S. agriculture ( U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2008 ). In the absence of methyl bromide, weed management, especially nutsedge control, will be difficult
Kathleen Delate, Andrea McKern, and Michelle Kirkland
Iowa was the sixth largest producer of grapes in the United States in the early 1900s, with 24,000 ha under production. The rapid expansion of petrochemicals post-World War II and grape's sensitivity to 2,4-D herbicides reduced vineyard size in Iowa to 28 ha in 2001. Recent state governmental support for organic fruit research and viticulture in general has led to the expansion of the grape and wine industry in Iowa. As of 2001, 5883 ha of organic grapes were produced in the United States. Challenges to organic grape production in the Midwest include diseases and weeds. The cultivation of American grape cultivars is essential in organic viticulture in the Midwest, including cultivars that are relatively cold hardy and disease tolerant. From 2003 to 2004, we experimented on-farm at Kirkland Vineyards, Norwalk, Iowa, with methods of organically approved weed management. Three replications of plots consisting of five vines each of `Marechal Foch' were laid out in 2003 in a completely randomized design in a 1-year-old vineyard. Treatments consisted of wood chips, wood chips plus vinegar herbicide (All-Down™, Summer Set Co., Chaska, Minn.), and mowing when weeds and groundcover reached 15 cm. Wood chips decreased weed load significantly over mowing alone, but wood chips plus vinegar herbicide provided the most control over 2 years of the experiment. There was a trend toward greater plant height in the wood chip treatment, but no significant differences in plant height were observed among treatments.
Emily K. Dixon, Bernadine C. Strik, Luis R. Valenzuela-Estrada, and David R. Bryla
. (2013 , 2014 ) studied weed management and cultivar impacts during establishment, and Fernandez-Salvador et al. (2015a , 2015b ) investigated several cultivar and fertilizer options. Weed management can be one of the most challenging and expensive