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S. Mark Goodwin, Christopher J. Edwards, Matthew A. Jenks and Karl V. Wood

cuticular wax deposits ( Jenks and Ashworth, 1999 ), Genders’ findings reveal that waxes of the rose cuticle may play an important role in rose pathogen resistance. Moreover, numerous studies in other plant systems show how diversity in the structure and

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Steven J. Damon and Michael J. Havey

beneficial for growers and, combined with fewer pesticide applications, offers a potentially affordable and sustainable management strategy for this important pest. Reduced amounts of leaf epicuticular waxes (often referred to as glossy or bloomless

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Steven J. Damon, Russell L. Groves and Michael J. Havey

)] and sunflower [ Helianthus annuus L. ( Ashfaq and Aslam, 2001 )]; however, specific mechanisms were not determined. Leaf epicuticular waxes are important in plant–insect interactions and are associated with both attractive and repulsive responses

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Xiuxiu Sun, Elizabeth Baldwin, Mark Ritenour, Robert Hagenmaier and Jinhe Bai

searching for a CR2 alternative found that several oil-soluble natural colorants were comparable to CR2 as a color enhancer ( Sun et al., 2015 ). However, postdye waxing was considered a necessity to reduce oxidation of carotenoid colorants ( Sun et al

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Eduardo D. Munaiz and Michael J. Havey

Waxes accumulate on the surface of plant leaves and are important for avoidance of abiotic stresses such as aerial desiccation ( Cameron et al., 2006 ; Kim et al., 2007 ), water deprivation ( Aharoni et al., 2004 ; Bourdenx et al., 2011 ), and

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Eduardo D. Munaiz, Russell L. Groves and Michael J. Havey

; Diaz-Montano et al., 2010 ; Jones et al., 1935 ). Light-green leaf color in onion has been associated with chemical composition of epicuticular waxes on foliage ( Damon et al., 2014 ; Jones et al., 1944 ; Maughan and MacLeod, 1936 ; Molenaar, 1984

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Bishnu P. Khanal, Rejina Shrestha, Leonie Hückstädt and Moritz Knoche

extended exposure to surface moisture ( Knoche and Grimm, 2008 ). Russeting can also be a response to some chemical sprays ( Sanchez et al., 2001 ). Wax affects the mechanical properties of the cuticle ( Dominguez et al., 2011 ; Petracek and Bukovac, 1995

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Huating Dou

I thank Mr. Frank Kelsey, FMC, Lakeland, Florida, for the donation of waxes. Shelley Jones and Patricia Swingle were greatly appreciated for help with critical reading of this paper.

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Robert D. Hagenmaier and Philip E. Shaw

The permeability to O2, CO2, C2H4, and water vapor was determined for 19 commercial fruit wax coatings, four ingredients thereof, and one shrink-wrap film. For the commercial coatings, the O2permeability at 50% relative humidity and 30C ranged from 470 to 22,000 ml (STP) × mil/(m2 × day × atm) (1 mil = 0.0254 mm) with CO)2. permeability two to eight times as high. Permeability to noncondensable gases tended to be higher for coatings made from carnauba wax than for those made from shellac and rosin. Commercial fruit wax had sufficiently low noncondensable gas permeability to account for large reductions in the respiration rate of coated fruit. Wax coatings could be improved if permeability were controlled:

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Eric A. Curry

solvent-extractable lipid extraction and analysis. Fruit treated at harvest were rated for injury 1 month after treatment, after which two fruit from each treatment replication were selected for epicuticular wax analysis. From an area of the peel visually