‘Cocktail Whiskey’ begonia (Begonia semperflorens), ‘Sun Devil Extreme’ vinca (Catharanthus roseus), ‘Million Gold’ melampodium (Melampodium paludosum), and ‘Super Elfin’ impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) plants were irrigated with water treated with quinclorac, topramezone, imazamox, and penoxsulam to identify herbicide concentrations that cause phytotoxic effects. Plants were irrigated four times over a 10-day period with the equivalent of 0.5 inch of treated water during each irrigation and were then irrigated with tap water until they were harvested 28 days after the first herbicide treatment. Visual quality and dry weight data revealed that melampodium was the most sensitive of the bedding plants to quinclorac, imazamox, and penoxsulam, whereas vinca was the most sensitive species to topramezone. Noticeable reductions in visual quality and dry weight of melampodium were evident after exposure to 240, 580, and 10 ppb of quinclorac, imazamox, and penoxsulam, respectively, while dry weight of vinca was reduced after exposure to 110 ppb of topramezone. Current irrigation restrictions on imazamox, penoxsulam, and topramezone are adequate to minimize damage to these bedding plants if herbicide-treated waters are used for four irrigation events. However, irrigation restrictions should be established for quinclorac to prevent damage to sensitive bedding plants such as melampodium.
‘Miami Beauty’ anthurium (Anthurium andreanum), ‘Frieda Hemple’ caladium (Caladium ×hortulanum), ‘Debbie’ spathiphyllum (Spathiphyllum), and ‘Regina Red’ syngonium (Syngonium podophyllum) were irrigated with water treated with bispyribac-sodium, quinclorac, topramezone, and trifloxysulfuron to identify herbicide concentrations that cause phytotoxic effects. Plants were irrigated four times over a 11-day period with the equivalent of 0.5 inch of treated water during each irrigation and were then irrigated with well water until they were harvested 43 days after the first herbicide treatment. Visual quality and dry weight data revealed that caladium was the most sensitive of the foliage plants, regardless of herbicide mode of action. Noticeable reductions in visual quality and dry weight of caladium were evident after exposure to 182, 144, 186, and 1135 ppb of bispyribac-sodium, quinclorac, topramezone, and trifloxysulfuron, respectively. Of the four herbicides evaluated in these experiments, only quinclorac caused noticeable damage to plants when applied at a concentration similar to the proposed use rate.
; Palese et al., 2010 ). Emerging irrigation technologies such as subsurface irrigation can also optimize water efficiency by reducing soil evaporation—a promising water-saving strategy ( Rufat et al., 2014 ). Nevertheless, the optimal degree of water
. Approximately 10 d after flower initiation, ≈35 flower heads per plant were labeled with a colored string on the day of flowering. Four plants were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: 1) no water restriction (200 mL water per plant), 2) no watering
acreage in 2007 ( Satterthwaite et al., 2009 ). However, periodic drought, the irrigation requirements of these managed areas, and mandatory watering restrictions have posed an inevitable challenge for homeowners and landscape managers. Understanding the
landscapes as a result of their perceived lack of heat and drought resistance ( Schiavon et al., 2013 ). Where water restriction periods occur routinely, maximal ecosystem services (i.e., continued CO 2 fixation, O 2 production, and heat dissipation) may be
; Salamone, 2002 ). Interested parties continually seek new and innovative measures to reduce consumption; however, traditional methods of water restriction and plant selection prevail. Restrictions in Florida vary depending on location, generally permitting
some areas of the country where municipal water restrictions may now limit winter irrigation to once per 7 to 14 d, or even prohibit winter overseeding entirely ( City of Allen, TX, 2015 ; San Antonio Water System, 2013 ). Little is known regarding the
between late-season water restrictions and yield and quality in blueberry. Crop thinning by removing fruit was laborious and showed little promise for reducing water stress during moderate or severe soil water deficits. The only advantage to crop thinning
Extensive areas occupied by Pinus nigra forests in Spain have burned in recent years. Recovery of these forests depends upon reforestation. In this study, we analyze the combined effects of different treatments of water restriction and air enrichment with CO2 in the nursery as a means to increase hardening and vigor of P. nigra seedlings of various ages (recently germinated, 1- and 2-year-old) and their post-transplant performance in a burned area. In all cases, 2-year-old seedlings showed the highest specific leaf weight and low cuticular transpiration rates. CO2 enrichment increased total biomass, leaf biomass and leaf area of seedlings while water restriction decreased leaf area, leaf biomass, and stem biomass, without any significant interaction between both experimental factors. Younger (recently germinated and 1-year-old) seedlings showed a larger relative response to the experimental factors than 2-year-old seedlings. After transplanting, the previous CO2 and water treatments did not affect seedling survival, but 2-year-old seedlings showed the lowest mortality rates.