Research quantified contributions to total variation in water vapor permeance from sources such as cultivar and harvest date in `Braeburn', `Pacific Rose', `Granny Smith', and `Cripps Pink' apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. In a study on `Braeburn' fruit from eight orchards in Central Otago, New Zealand, >50% of the total variation in permeance was associated with harvest date. This variation was the result of a large increase in water vapor permeance from 16.6 to 30.2 (se = 0.88, df = 192) nmol·s-1·m-2·Pa-1 over the 8 week experimental harvest period. Fruit to fruit differences accounted for 22% of total variation in permeance. Interaction between harvest date and orchard effects explained 7% of the total variation, indicating that fruit from the different orchards responded in differing ways to advancing harvest date. Tree effects accounted for only 1% of the total variation. Weight loss from respiration [at 20 °C and ≈60% relative humidity (RH)] comprised 3.04±0.11% of total weight loss, averaged across all harvest dates. In a second study of fruit of four apple cultivars, almost 30% of the total variation in water vapor permeance was associated with cultivar differences. Mean water vapor permeance for `Braeburn', `Pacific Rose', `Granny Smith', and `Cripps Pink' fruit was 44, 35, 17, and 20 (se = 4.3, df = 300) nmol·s-1·m-2·Pa-1 respectively. Over 20% of the total variation was associated with harvest date and arose from a large increase in water vapor permeance from 21 nmol·s-1·m-2·Pa-1 at first harvest to 46 nmol·s-1·m-2·Pa-1 (se = 5.3, df = 200) at final harvest, 10 weeks later, on average across all four cultivars. There was large fruit to fruit variation in water vapor permeance accounting for 25% of the total variation in permeance values. Tree effects only accounted for 4% of the total variation. Water vapor permeance in `Pacific Rose'` and `Braeburn' increased substantially with later harvest but values remained relatively constant for `Granny Smith' and `Cripps Pink'. A simple mathematical model was developed to predict weight loss from `Braeburn' fruit. Based on these findings, it appears worthwhile to increase the stringency of measures to control weight loss in `Braeburn' and `Pacific Rose'` apples, particularly those harvested late in the season.
Kate M. Maguire, Nigel H. Banks, Alexander Lang, and Ian L. Gordon
W.C. Lin, G.S. Block, and M.E. Saltveit
A portable, nondispersive infrared (NDIR) gas analyzer was modified to measure the concentration of CO2 and water vapor in small gas samples. A 2-mL gas sample was taken from a series of sealed flasks partially filled with a saturated solution of chemicals known to produce various levels of relative humidity (RH). The modified NDIR instrument quantified water vapor content by its absorption at 2.59 μm. Peak height was displayed on a strip chart recorder and a standard curve constructed. At a specific temperature, the vapor pressure (VP) and vapor pressure difference (VPD) were calculated for sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L., cv. Mazurka) fruit packed in trays that were covered with plastic films having several levels of perforations. Water loss from the fruit was highly correlated with VPD inside the packages. The modified NDIR instrument has an advantage over other instruments used to measure RH because it can rapidly and simultaneously determine the concentration of water vapor and CO2 in a single injection of a small gas sample.
Laura Dellevigne, Peter Vergano, Lee Wiles, Andy Hale, and Jeff Adelberg
Commercially produced membrane rafts containing Celgard D-304 microporous, polypropylene film are used to support the growth of micropropagated plants in liquid media. This method is used because growth experiments using membranes resulted in plant growth rates equal to or greater than those grown on agar. Inconsistent results of plant growth on these rafts led to an interest in measuring the water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) of the membranes. A modified WVTR test (ASTM E96-80) was used on 15 raft samples. Results showed that the supplier's value of 49.2 g/m2 ·hr falls within the range of measured values of 39.2 to 54.8 g/m2·hr. Inconsistencies in growth of micropropagated plants may not be due to variability in the WVTR of the Celgard film. It is possible that the WVTR of the film is not the most important factor in facilitating liquid nutrient transport across the membrane. Other properties of the film need to be measured to determine factors affecting growth rates observed.
Robert D. Hagenmaier and Philip E. Shaw
The permeability to O2, CO2, C2H4, and water vapor was determined for 19 commercial fruit wax coatings, four ingredients thereof, and one shrink-wrap film. For the commercial coatings, the O2permeability at 50% relative humidity and 30C ranged from 470 to 22,000 ml (STP) × mil/(m2 × day × atm) (1 mil = 0.0254 mm) with CO)2. permeability two to eight times as high. Permeability to noncondensable gases tended to be higher for coatings made from carnauba wax than for those made from shellac and rosin. Commercial fruit wax had sufficiently low noncondensable gas permeability to account for large reductions in the respiration rate of coated fruit. Wax coatings could be improved if permeability were controlled:
Jens N. Wünsche and John W. Palmer
A monitoring and control system for sequentially measuring whole-tree-canopy gas exchange of four apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees in the field is described. A portable, highly transparent, open-top whole-canopy cuvette was developed for complete enclosure of the above-ground portion of the tree. The flux of whole-canopy CO2 and H2 0 vapor was estimated from differential CO2 concentration and H2O-vapor partial pressure between ambient/reference air entering the cuvette and analysis air leaving the cuvette, as measured by infrared gas analysis. The bulk air-flow rate through the chamber was measured with a Pitot static tube inserted into the air-supply duct and connected to a differential pressure transducer. Performance of the whole-canopy cuvette system was tested for its suitability for gas-exchange measurements under field conditions. The air flow through the whole-canopy cuvette was 22000 L·min-1 (≈5.5 air exchanges/min) during the day, providing adequate air mixing within the cuvette, and 4000 L·min-1 (≈1 air exchange/min) during the night. Daily average leaf temperatures within the cuvette were 2-3 °C higher than to those on trees outside the cuvette. Photosynthetic photon flux transmitted through the chamber walls was at least 92 % of the incident ambient radiation. Moreover, the whole-canopy cuvette was evaluated without tree enclosure to determine the degree of “noise” in differential CO2 concentration and H2O-vapor partial pressure and was found to be acceptable with ΔCO2 ± 0.3 (μmol·mol-1 and ΔH2O ± 5 Pa. Whole-canopy carbon gas exchange and transpiration of four cropping `Braeburn'/M.26 apple trees followed closely incident radiation over the course of a day.
Thomas O. Athoo, Andreas Winkler, and Moritz Knoche
pedicels) is usually described by Fick’s law: where F (grams per second) is the measured rate of transpiration, A (square meters) the organ’s surface area, and ΔC (grams per cubic meter) the difference in water vapor concentration between the inside
Nauja Lisa Jensen, Christian R. Jensen, Fulai Liu, and Karen K. Petersen
) treatments. Horizontal bars show ± sd of [ABA] xylem and vertical bars show ± sd of g s . Relationship between g s and [ABA] xylem of pot-grown strawberry plants ( B ) at different ranges of water vapor pressure deficits (VPD). Data points are means
Amanda J. Taylor, R. Thomas Fernandez, Pascal Nzokou, and Bert Cregg
increased midday stomatal conductance ( g S ) to water vapor for plants from three Rhododendron cultivars ( Scagel et al., 2011 ). Cyclic irrigation, by maintaining higher substrate moisture content in the midday hours than one single application, delays
Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez, María Dolores Muy-Rangel, and Arturo Gaytán Mascorro
Fruit water loss significantly affects the quality of bell peppers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fruit weight, size, and stage of ripeness on the rate of water loss and permeance to water vapor. Fruit surface area/weight ratio decreased logarithmically with increases in fruit size, with smaller fruit showing larger changes in the ratio than larger fruit. Mean water loss rate for individual fruit and permeance to water vapor declined with increases in fruit size and as fruit ripeness progressed. Fruit surface area/weight ratio and rate of water loss were both highest in immature fruit and showed no differences between mature green and red fruit. In mature fruit, permeance to water vapor for the skin and calyx were 29 μmol·m–2·s–1·kPa–1 and 398 μmol·m–2·s–1·kPa–1, respectively. About 26% of the water loss in mature fruit occurred through the calyx. There was a decline in firmness, water loss rate, and permeance to water vapor of the fruit with increasing fruit water loss during storage.
Julie M. Tarara and Jorge E. Perez Peña
analyzed only for complete 24-h measurements. Concentrations of water vapor [H 2 O v ] in air drawn from the chamber inlet and outlet were measured with an IR gas analyzer (IRGA; CIRAS-DC, PP Systems, Amesbury, MA) with a measurement range from 0 to 75 mb