that is collected for use in catchment basins (capture-and-reuse) or recirculating (ebb and flood) irrigation systems are characterized by elevated levels of physical, chemical, and biological contaminants that result in lower water quality, compared
Dustin P. Meador, Paul R. Fisher, Philip F. Harmon, Natalia A. Peres, Max Teplitski and Charles L. Guy
Richard O. Carey, George J. Hochmuth, Christopher J. Martinez, Treavor H. Boyer, Vimala D. Nair, Michael D. Dukes, Gurpal S. Toor, Amy L. Shober, John L. Cisar, Laurie E. Trenholm and Jerry B. Sartain
used. To critically analyze plant fertilizer needs relative to potential water quality threats, an understanding of nutrient budgets, especially in relation to fertilizer inputs and losses in urban landscapes, is needed. Fertilization mismanagement of
Reagan W. Hejl, Benjamin G. Wherley, James C. Thomas and Richard H. White
concerning how irrigation water quality may affect the extent of deficit irrigation tolerable by turfgrass. This has become an increasingly important consideration, especially in light of the growing number of maintained turf sites using nonpotable or low
resulted in the industry-wide common practice of reuse or recirculation of wash water. Our surveys conducted through various fresh-cut vegetable processors found that wash water quality deteriorated rapidly during produce washing as a result of the
Michael A. Schnelle, Sharon L. von Broembsen and Michael D. Smolen
A comprehensive educational program focusing on water quality protection was developed for the Oklahoma nursery industry. The program focused on best management practices to limit pesticides and nutrients in irrigation runoff and on capture and recycle technology as a pollution prevention strategy. Key professionals from the departments of entomology and plant pathology, biosystems and agricultural engineering, and horticulture formed a multidisciplinary team within the Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service (OCES). During 1998, water quality workshops were conducted on-site throughout Oklahoma at leading nursery operations. These workshops were designed to highlight best management practices (BMPs) that were already in place as a foundation on which to implement additional BMPs with the assistance of the OCES team. Training workshops were augmented by written publications, by web-based information, and by videotape instruction. These provided for ongoing education beyond the formal grant period. The written materials included a water quality handbook for nurseries and a fact sheet on capturing and recycling irrigation runoff. The water quality handbook was also made available on the web and a website on disease management for nurseries using recycling irrigation was provided. The water quality video, highlighting successful growers, was designed to show aspects of both best management practices and capture and recycle technology. Results of these 3-year extension efforts will be discussed.
P. Chris Wilson and Joseph P. Albano
available for both formulation types at the container-leaching scale, no data are available documenting the impacts on drainage water quality when making the transition from liquid fertilization to slow-release fertilization programs at the production area
Thomas C. Holt, Brian K. Maynard and William A. Johnson
Degraded water quality is a growing concern across the northeast and in many cases may be linked back to agricultural operations as nonpoint sources of nitrate and phosphorous pollution. Constructed wetlands have emerged as effective, low-cost methods of water treatment that have the potential to reduce agricultural nonpoint source pollution and contribute to agricultural sustainability. However, the costs of implementing treatment wetlands as a BMP are high, with little opportunity for cost recovery. We have initiated, at a wholesale plant nursery in Rhode Island, an economical solution to treating nursery runoff that incorporates into a treatment wetland the wholesale production of native and ornamental wetland plants. Our goal is to demonstrate how nursery growers may produce a high-demand crop while addressing nonpoint source pollution on their land. Over the next few years, we will evaluate the economic impact of converting nursery production space into treatment wetland production space. We also will research the feasibility of enclosing treatment wetlands in passively heated polyhouses to facilitate the year around treatment of agricultural runoff. Information gathered from both the on-farm demonstration and research sites will be extended to farmers and other agricultural businesses or professionals through outreach programming. The theory, objectives, and construction of the demonstration treatment-production wetland will be presented.
Susan D. Day, Paula Diane Relf and Marc T. Aveni
A multi-faceted extension education program to reduce consumer contributions to nonpoint source pollution by encouraging proper landscape management was initiated in Prince William County, Va., and funded through the USDA-extension service. The program now is being replicated in several counties in Virginia, primarily in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The program recruits participants through educational field days, advertisement and other means. Educational techniques include one-on-one assistance from Master Gardener volunteers and the use of Extension publications developed for this program. Publications developed include The Virginia Gardener Easy Reference to Sustainable Landscape Management and Water Quality Protection—a concise reference of Virginia Cooperative Extension landscaping recommendations that includes a calendar for recording fertilizer and pesticide applications, IPM, and other maintenance activities. The Virginia Gardener Guide to Water-wise Landscaping, was recently added to supplement the program in the area of water conservation. In Prince William County, over 700 people have participated. Most of those who complete the program report being more satisfied with their lawn appearance and spending less money. Participation also resulted in consumers being more likely to seek soil test information before applying fertilizer. Other effects include greater participation in leaf composting and grass clipping recycling and greater awareness of nonpoint source pollution.
P. Diane Relf and David McKissack
A mass media water-quality program aimed at changing lawn and garden fertilization practices of homeowners successfully elicited responses from individuals by using local cooperative extension offices and newsletters. Traditional extension media tools, such as radio and news releases, were less successful in eliciting requests for further information. In addition, the program reached more people by transmitting the information in the form of a calendar than it reached in the first year through videotapes and slide sets created for use in public and Master Gardener training.
Traci Armstrong, Matthew W. Kent and David Wm. Reed
With the rising concern for the environment and an increase in governmental regulation, greenhouse growers must find alternative methods for irrigation that will avoid ground and surface water contamination. Subirrigation is one of these alternatives, but subirrigation is more sensitive to water quality than traditional systems and many growers are faced with poor water quality. This experiment tested seven different water sources from across the state of Texas. Each source was replicated twice using New Guinea impatiens `Illusion'. Leaf count, plant height, and plant width were measured at 2-week intervals. Plants were harvested at 8 weeks and measured for shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and overall quality. Electrical conductivity of the upper, middle, and bottom layers of the container medium was measured. Compared to the reverse osmosis control, fresh weight was reduced by 12% to 30%, average leaf number by –7% to 56%, quality evaluation by –8% to 61%, average width by –5% to 27%, and the average height by 8% to 34%. The results will be explained based on differences in analysis of the various water and media samples.