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Joshua Knight, Dewayne L. Ingram and Charles R. Hall

production, as it is characterized by its environmental impact and exclusive use. Irrigation water applied does not take water recycling into account, whereas CWU does. Water footprint is the volume of CWU multiplied by the corresponding watershed’s scarcity

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Dewayne L. Ingram and Charles R. Hall

environment (i.e., crop damage, skin cancer, cataracts, and immune system suppression) and is characterized by higher levels of uncertainty than midpoint impact potentials ( Bare et al., 2003 ; USEPA, 2008 ). Water footprint, expressed in cubic meters of

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Sarah A. White

how life cycle assessment can be used to systematically evaluate the relative environmental impacts of current production practices on a producer’s global warming potential (carbon footprint) and water consumption (water footprint) ( Ingram and Hall

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Dewayne L. Ingram and R. Thomas Fernandez

questions that could be addressed by an LCA relate to a product’s water footprint (the water used, both directly and indirectly, by an organization, event, product, or service), toxicity potential (releases that are toxic to humans and/or the environment

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Kimberly Moore, Scott Greenhut and Wagner Vendrame

been recently debated. Gerbens-Leenes et al. (2009) list jatropha as the bioenergy crop with the greatest water footprint per electricity output (396 m 3 ·GJ −1 electricity) based on high yields under optimal conditions, whereas Jongschaap et al

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall and Joshua Knight

from a gallon of milk or a container-grown shrub or a field-grown tree. GWP is but one environmental impact that can be measured or estimated by LCA. These potential environmental impact measures include water footprint, ecotoxicity, ozone depletion

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall and Joshua Knight

System B also leads to a smaller carbon (and potentially water) footprint. As far as the impacts of these results on consumers, previous studies have shown a segment of consumers have a willingness to pay more for plants that are grown using environmental

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Celina Gómez, Christopher J. Currey, Ryan W. Dickson, Hye-Ji Kim, Ricardo Hernández, Nadia C. Sabeh, Rosa E. Raudales, Robin G. Brumfield, Angela Laury-Shaw, Adam K. Wilke, Roberto G. Lopez and Stephanie E. Burnett

factors. The multidimensional concept of water footprint considers the whole supply chain, as well as geographical and temporal parameters. Hoekstra et al. (2011) define water footprint of a product as “the total volume of fresh water that is used

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall and Joshua Knight

cycle assessment J. Environ. Hort. 32 175 181 Ingram, D.L. Hall, C.R. 2014b Life cycle assessment used to determine the potential environment impact factors and water footprint of field-grown tree production inputs and processes J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci

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Dewayne L. Ingram and Charles R. Hall

-grown Viburnum × juddi using life cycle assessment J. Environ. Hort. 32 175 181 Ingram, D.L. Hall, C.R. 2014b Life cycle assessment used to determine the potential midpoint environment impact factors and water footprint of field-grown tree production inputs and