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, J.C.R. Galindo, J.M.G. Molinillo, and H.G. Cutler (eds.). Allelopathy: Chemistry and mode of action of allelochemicals. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL El-Mahrouk, M.S. Dewir, Y.H. 2016 Physico-chemical properties of compost based waste-recycling of grape

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Abstract

Twenty species of ornamental trees were grown for 12-16 months in 50 cm diameter (“20 gallon”) containers. Six individuals of each species were irrigated with tap water from a public potable water supply and 6 with secondary treated sewage effluent from a wastewater treatment facility. Three individuals within each irrigation treatment received controlled-release fertilizer applications and 3 received no supplemental fertilization. The effluent irrigation significantly accelerated growth in 4 species: orchid tree (Bauhinia variegata L.), baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) L. Rich), coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.), and black iron wood (Krugiodendron ferreum [Vahl] Urban). The addition of supplemental fertilization accelerated growth in 7 species: orchid tree, ficus (Ficus benjamina L.), black olive (Bucida buceras L.), satin leaf (Chrysophyllum oliviforme L.), royal poinciana (Delonix regia [Bojer] Raf.), silver buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus var. sericeus Fors. ex DC.), and blolly (Pisonia discolor Spreng.). A significant interaction occurred between irrigation and fertilization in 3 species: orchid tree, red cedar (Juniperus silicicola [Small] L. H. Bailey), and lignum vitae (Guaicum sanctum L.). The remaining 8 species grew at rates that were not significantly influenced, one way or another, by either source of irrigation or supplemental fertilization.

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Four deciduous ornamental shrubs {`Coral Beauty' cotoneaster (Cotoneaster dammeri C.K. Schneid.), `Flaviramea' dogwood (Cornus sericea L.), `Lynwood' forsythia (Forsythia ×intermedia Zab.), and `Variegata' weigela [Weigela florida (Bunge) A. DC.]} were grown in trickle-irrigated containers with 100% pine bark (control) or with 10 other pine-bark-amended media, including two sources [Noranda Forest (NF) and Quebec and Ontario (QO)] of raw paper mill sludge mixed at 15 % or 30% (by volume). All species grew equally well or better in the sludge-amended media than in the control or other nonsludge media. Cotoneaster and forsythia grew more in NF sludge media than in corresponding QO media due primarily to the greater quantities of N and other nutrients released from the NF sludge.

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Four deciduous ornamental shrubs [`Coral Beauty' cotoneaster (Cotoneaster dammeri C.K. Schneid); Tartarian dogwood (Cornus alba L.); `Lynwood' forsythia (Forsythia × intermedia Zab.); `Variegata' weigela (Weigela florida Bunge A.D.C.)] were grown in trickle-fertigated containers. There were eight media consisting of 25% or 50% sphagnum peat or composted pine bark, 25% sand, and the remainder one of two sources of spent mushroom compost; four media with 509″ peat or bark mixed with 50% spent mushroom compost; and a control medium of 10070 pine bark. Initially, higher than desirable salt levels in all compost-amended media were leached quickly (within 2 weeks of planting) and not detrimental to the species tested. Unlike cotoneaster, which showed no difference in growth (shoot dry weight) due to medium, dogwood, forsythia, and weigela grew significantly better in all compost-amended media than in the control. Growth of these three species was 20% greater in peat-based than in bark-based, compost-amended media. Dogwood and forsythia grew slightly more (+8%) with spent mushroom compost based primarily on straw-bedded horse manure than with one based on a blend of straw-bedded horse manure, wheat straw, and hay. The addition of sand (25%) to a mixture of 50% peat or bark and 25 % spent compost produced a medium with minimal compaction.

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During the past 20 years, the Ornamental Nursery Research Program at the former Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario (now part of the University of Guelph) has been conducting applied research dealing with environmentally friendly and sustainable nursery production practices with emphasis on container production. The use of farm, industrial, and consumer waste by-products as amendments in nursery substrates has been a major focus. The program has evaluated hundreds of potting mixes derived from individual or combined, raw or composted waste by-products including spent mushroom compost, turkey litter compost, paper mill sludge, municipal waste compost, corrugated cardboard, apple pomace, wood chips from pallets, pulverized glass, and various types of tree barks. With few exceptions, all the above waste by-products tested under our cultural conditions provided acceptable to excellent container-growing media, often in amounts exceeding 50% and sometimes up to 100% by volume in No. 2 containers (6 L), even despite initially elevated and potentially toxic contents of soluble salts [expressed in terms of electrical conductivity measured up to 8.9 dS·m-1 in 1 substrate: 2 water (by volume) extracts] in many of the substrates. A key to these successful results is that salts leach quickly from the containers to benign levels (∼1.0 dS·m-1) with normal irrigation practices. High initial pH in most waste-derived substrates (up to 8.9) has had little or no discernible effect on growth of a wide assortment of deciduous nursery species. By-products such as paper mill sludge and municipal waste compost with soluble salts contents typically ranging from 0.8 to 2.0 dS·m-1, also provide acceptable rooting media provided salts are leached before use to values ≤0.2 dS·m-1. The porosity and aeration characteristics of waste-derived substrates tend to be comparable to, or better than, those of bark.

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The objective of this experiment was to determine the suitability of a compost obtained from a commercially available solid-waste processing plant for sod production when placed over a plastic barrier. Comparisons were made between compost-grown sod with and without fertilizer and between compost-grown sod and commercially grown sod. Six weeks after seeding or sprigging, both fertilized and nonfertilized compost-grown `Argentine' bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), `Tifway' bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis × C. dactylon), and `Floratam' St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze.] had discolored leaf blade tissue and poor growth. At 6 weeks, bahiagrass leaf tissue had a low N concentration, which suggested that the compost immobilized fertilizer N. Additionally, initial high salinity of the compost (2.85 dS·m-1) may have contributed to turf discoloration and lack of vigor. However, poor growth and discoloration were temporary. At 3 and 5 months, fertilized compost-grown turfgrasses had higher quality and coverage than nonfertilized sod. At 5 months, fertilized sod had sufficient coverage for harvest, whereas for conventional field production 9 to 24 months generally is required to produce a harvestable product. Compost-grown sod pieces had similar or higher tear resistance than commercially grown sod. One and 3 weeks after transplanting on a sand soil, compost-grown sod produced higher root weight and longer roots in the underlying soil than did commercially grown sod. The solid-waste compost used in this study offers a viable alternative material for producing sod that will benefit solid-waste recycling efforts.

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The Florida Cooperative Extension Service (FCES) teaches residents the importance of proper landscaping practices. FCES offers several educational programs that teach residents how to integrate energy and water conservation, pest management, and waste recycling practices into their home landscapes. In 1997, extension staff and volunteers planned and conducted environmental landscape management (ELM) programs resulting in >800,000 customer contacts. A survey was conducted to measure the adoption of recommended best management practices by program participants and nonparticipants. Results show that, of 39 practices examined, Master Gardener trainees increased the number of practices used by an average of 7.3, while educational seminar and publications-only participants increased by an average of 4.5 and 2.8 practices, respectively. Nonparticipants showed essentially no change. When practices are examined one at a time, the Master Gardeners made statistically significant increases in 28 of the 39 recommended practices. Educational seminar and publications-only participants made similar gains in 31 and 6 practices, respectively, and the nonparticipant comparison group made significant increases in 2 practices and decreases in 8. The results suggest that the publications-only strategy for delivering information to homeowners is less effective than strategies combining educational seminars or intensive training with relevant publications.

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eryngii J. Agr. Res. China 46 51 59 Petre, M. Teodorescu, A. 2012 Biotechnology of agricultural wastes recycling through controlled cultivation of mushrooms. In: M. Petre (ed). Advances in applied biotechnology. InTech. ISBN: 978-953-307-820-5 Poppe, J

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study, the liquid manure showed no sign of adverse effects on the plants. This research provides new knowledge on an alternative and innovative option for recycling this type of liquid waste. Recycling liquid cattle manure can eliminate costs for

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landfill or incinerate wastes, recycle nutrients that would otherwise be lost, and potentially sequester carbon in the soil. Finally, unlike synthetic sources of nitrogen, these wastes have the potential to be approved for use in USDA-certified organic

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