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Jen A. Sembera, Tina M. Waliczek, and Erica J. Meier

(Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013). Composting is a biomechanical process during which microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi convert organic matter into a waste-free, soil-like product ( Epstein, 1997 ; Rynk, 1992 ). The mechanical manipulation

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William E. Knoop and Phillip F. Colbaugh

An urban educational program titled “Don't Bag It” having as its' goal the reduction of the solid waste flow to landfills, was initiated in Ft. Worth the spring of 1988. The program, using media methods and volunteer demonstrators, teaches homeowners how to manage lawns without bagging grass clippings.

Very favorable program results have encouraged the spread of the program to 25 other Texas cities and the distribution of the program across the country:

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Rebecca J. Long, Rebecca N. Brown, and José A. Amador

and manures as sources of nutrients for agriculture predates the use of synthetically fixed nitrogen, and more recently, novel types of organic wastes, from industrial and municipal sources, are being considered for their potential as fertilizer

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Yuncong Li, Edward Hanlon, George O'Connor, Jianjun Chen, and Maria Silveira

Most Florida soils are sandy or gravelly and exhibit low pH, low organic matter content, and poor water and nutrient holding capacities ( Brown et al., 1990 ). Studies conducted in Florida show that composts made from a number of organic waste

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Mohammed El-Sayed El-Mahrouk, Yaser Hassan Dewir, and Salah El-Hendawy

Grape juice industries produce large amounts of waste, which can negatively affect the environment ( Kumar and Manimegalai, 2004 ). Composting of ‘Red Roomy’ grape waste for use as a partial peat substitute has been proposed; it could also reduce

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Rita L. Hummel, Craig Cogger, Andy Bary, and Robert Riley

Composted organic wastes have the potential to substitute for peat and bark as components of the growth substrates in containerized plant production systems ( Carlile, 2008 ; Clark and Cavigelli, 2005 ; Estévez-Schwarz et al., 2009 ; Fitzpatrick

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John Rojas, Julian Quintero, Yhors Ciro, and Javier Silva

). Therefore, this technology is easily adaptable in diverse fields and could be applied for hydrolysis of shrimp waste. Thus, bubbles form, expand, and contract inside the waste particles in a process called cavitation. Ultrasound eventually ruptures the

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Steven E. Newman, Karen L. Panter, Michael J. Roll, and Robert O. Miller

Foundation. The authors express appreciation to Busch Greenhouses, Inc. and JaiTire, Inc., who provided plant material and waste tire products for this study. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal

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M. Ozores-Hampton, H.H. Bryan, B. Schaffer, and E.A. Hanlon

Florida Agricultural Expt. Station Journal Series no. R-03393. This study was supported by grants from the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management and the Charles A. Lindbergh Fund. The cost of publishing this paper was

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Jeffrey S. Karns

The use of microbes and/or microbial processes for the bioremediation of soils contaminated with pesticides is an idea that has enjoyed considerable interest over the past several years. Many microbes with specific pathways for the degradation of particular pesticides, or classes of pesticide, have been isolated and characterized. Unfortunately, most sites that are heavily contaminated with pesticides contain a mixture of the many different types of pesticides that have been used over the last 5 decades. This complex mixture of compounds may inhibit microbial degradation or may require multiple treatments to assure that all the chemicals are degraded. Treatment of wastes before they contaminate the environment is one way to avoid the problems associated with mixed wastes. We have isolated a number of microorganisms that detoxify insecticides, such as carbaryl of parathion via the action of hydrolase enzymes. These enzymes can be used to treat waste pesticide solutions before disposal. A system was developed for the disposal of one high-volume organophosphate insecticide waste by treatment with parathion hydrolase, followed by ozonation to yield harmless products that were readily degraded by other soil microorganisms. A second method for disposal of this waste involves altering the environmental conditions in the waste to stimulate the growth of microorganisms naturally present in the material utilizing the pesticide as a carbon source. This accomplishes degradation of the material over a 2-week period. Many, if not all, pesticides are degradable to some degree by microorganisms, and this fact can be exploited to provide cost-effective methods for the safe disposal of pesticide wastes.