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Jason J. Danaher, Jeremy M. Pickens, Jeffrey L. Sibley, Jesse A. Chappell, Terrill R. Hanson, and Claude E. Boyd

double crop (fish + plants) from the same nutrient source will become increasingly important in areas where waste management will be strictly regulated. The aforementioned studies suggest the original effluent stream from RAS should not be thought as an

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Kevin T. Walsh and Tina M. Waliczek

product ( Illera-Vives et al., 2015 ; Sembera et al., 2018 ). Composting is the natural process of breaking down organic matter into a usable, waste-free product, and it is increasingly used as a waste management system ( Sanders et al., 2011 ). Compost

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Mohammed El-Sayed El-Mahrouk, Yaser Hassan Dewir, and Salah El-Hendawy

Grape (Vitis vinifera) waste management is a major problem in juice production, but it could be transformed into a major opportunity if the waste was recycled and used as a nursery growing medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of four composts based on squeezed grape fruit waste (SGFW), mixed with coir or vermiculite in a one-to-one ratio by volume to form 13 growing media, for seed germination and seedling growth of ‘Mrs. Burns’ lemon basil (Ocimum basilicum var. citriodora). The final germination percentage (FGP), corrected germination rate index (CGRI), survival percentage, and seedling growth of ‘Mrs. Burns’ lemon basil were the variables measured. Pure SGFW reduced seed germination and seedling growth. The medium combining pure SGFW with vermiculite in a one-to-one ratio by volume was optimal for seed germination and seedling growth; in this medium the highest FGP, CGRI, survival rate, and growth parameters were recorded. The negative effects of pure SGFW composts were eliminated by mixing all composts with coir or vermiculite. These waste recycling media are low-cost products that can be beneficially used in nurseries on a commercial scale.

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Joan Bradshaw and Monica Ozores-Hampton

In 1988, the Florida Legislature passed the Solid Waste Management Act that affected the solid waste disposal practices of every county in the state. With legislation directly affecting the industry, organic recyclers and Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) regulators recognized a need to establish a professional organization that could serve as a unified industry voice, and foster high standards and ethics in the business of recycling and reuse of organic materials. In December 1994, a meeting was held to discuss the formulation of a Florida organic recycling association which became known as the Florida Organics Recyclers Association (FORA). FORA's first major contribution to the industry was the development of a recycling best management practice manual for yard trash in 1996. The second major project undertaken by FORA was a food waste diversion project which sought to promote an increase in food waste recovery and reuse. In Spring 1999, FORA became the organic division of Recycling Florida Today (RFT) further unifying recycling efforts within the State of Florida. In an attempt to address mounting concerns regarding industry marketing and promotional needs, RFT/FORA developed an organic recycling facility directory for the State of Florida in Spring 2000. Most recently RFT/FORA developed an organic recycling facility operator training course outline to assist the FDEP in identifying industry training needs. From its modest beginnings in 1994, to future joint programming efforts with the University of Florida's Florida Organic Recycling Center for Excellence (FORCE), RFT/FORA continues to emerge as a viable conduit of educational information for public and private agencies relative to organic recycling in Florida.

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Steven E. Newman, Karen L. Panter, Michael J. Roll, and Robert O. Miller

Two cultivars of zonal geraniums (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey), `Danielle' and `Kim', were grown in media containing three grind sizes of rubber (2.4, 6, or 10 mm) and fiber from the fabric belting processed from waste tires in three proportions: 1 rubber or fiber: 1 peat; 1 rubber or fiber: 1 vermiculite: 2 peat; and 2 rubber or fiber: 1 vermiculite: 1 peat (by volume). Two control media were also included: 1 vermiculite: 1 peat, and 1 rockwool: 1 peat (by volume). Geranium plants were grown in media containing up to 25% waste tire products along with traditional medium components without reducing plant quality. Plant growth was best and flower count was highest in the vermiculite and peat medium, plants were smallest and flower count was lowest in media containing the rubber grinds at 2.4 or 6 mm, making up 50% of the media. The medium 1 rubber: 1 vermiculite: 2 peat, regardless of grind or fiber, produced plants equal to the rockwool and peat moss medium. All plants grown in media containing rubber by-products had elevated Zn and Cu in the foliage; however, Zn and Cu were highest in media containing 50% rubber. Foliar P: Zn ratios were less for plants grown in media containing 50% rubber and also were lower in plants grown in media with smaller rubber grind sizes.

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R.P. Flynn, C.W. Wood, and E.A. Guertal

A glasshouse study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of composted broiler chicken (Gallus gallus) litter as a potting substrate using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Broiler litters containing wood shavings or peanut bulls as bedding materials were composted with either shredded pine bark or peanut hulls. Composted materials were then combined with a commercially available potting substrate. Greatest fresh weight yield was obtained when peanut bull compost was mixed with commercial potting substrate at a ratio of 3:1. Fresh weight was less with pine bark compost than with peanut hull compost. However, there were no differences in lettuce dry weight among composts except for pine bark composted with wood-shaving broiler litter. The pH of this material was below the lettuce tolerance level for mixes at or above 50% compost. There was no evidence of lettuce physiological disorders resulting from excessive nutrient concentration. Most elements analyzed (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Al) were within or slightly above sufficiency ranges for Boston-type leaf lettuce. It appears that composting broiler litter for use as a potting substrate or component would be one suitable alternative to land application in the southern United States. We recommend, however, that the pH of substrates be adjusted to suit desired crop requirements.

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Tina Waliczek, Amy McFarland, and Megan Holmes

Food waste is one of the most abundant materials contributing to landfills in the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates 96% of uneaten food ends up in landfills. Food and other organic wastes generate potent greenhouse gases in the atmosphere precipitating global climate change. College campus cafeterias generate a large amount of food waste and some universities are making efforts to capture and compost food waste. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship between participation in a university composting program and students’ environmental attitudes, environmental locus of control (refers to the belief that an individual’s actions play a direct role in the result of any affair), compost knowledge, and compost attitudes. Undergraduate and graduate students were given a survey, which included an environmental attitude scale, an environmental locus of control inventory and sections where students reported their composting habits, knowledge of the composting process, and how composting made them feel. A total of 660 surveys were collected from two universities, one that acted as the treatment and the other as the control group. The results indicated a statistically significant difference between the school with a composting program and the school without a composting program on the variables of environmental attitudes, environmental locus of control, and composting knowledge. Furthermore, composting attitudes were positively related to environmental attitudes, environmental locus of control, and compost knowledge at the university with a composting program. Demographic comparisons found differences within the treatment group on the composting attitude and knowledge and environmental attitude inventories but not locus of control.

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Carl J. Rosen, Thomas R. Halbach, and Bert T. Swanson

Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) has received renewed attention as a result of increasing waste disposal costs and the environmental concerns associated with using landfills. Sixteen MSW composting facilities are currently operating in the United States, with many more in the advanced stages of planning. A targeted end use of the compost is for horticultural crop production. At the present time, quality standards for MSW composts are lacking and need to be established. Elevated heavy metal concentrations in MSW compost have been reported; however, through proper sorting and recycling prior to composting, contamination by heavy metals can be reduced. Guidelines for safe metal concentrations and fecal pathogens in compost, based on sewage sludge research, are presented. The compost has been shown to be useful in horticultural crop production by improving soil physical properties, such as lowering bulk density and increasing water-holding capacity. The compost can supply essential nutrients to a limited extent; however, supplemental fertilizer, particularly N, is usually required. The compost has been used successfully as a sphagnum peat substitute for container media and as a seedbed for turf production. High soluble salts and B, often leading to phytotoxicity, are problems associated with the use of MSW compost. The primary limiting factor for the general use of MSW compost in horticultural crop production at present is the lack of consistent, high-quality compost.

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Jason Sanders, Tina Marie Waliczek, and Jean-Marc Gandonou

knowledge and resources to provide leadership and develop models to approach the environmental challenges surrounding waste management as well as promote change through the education of citizens ( Leal Filho et al., 1996 ). Colleges and universities around

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Ellen M. Bauske, Gary R. Bachman, Tom Bewick, Lucy Bradley, David Close, Rick Durham, and Mary Hockenberry Meyer

environment in many ways and are intimately intertwined with aesthetics, preference, and human well-being. They impact water, waste management, climate, and environmental sustainability ( Carey et al., 2013 ; Zhou, 2014 ). The ecological services provided by