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K.L. Hensler, B.S. Baldwin, and J.M. Goatley Jr.

A truly soilless turfgrass sod may be produced on kenaf-based (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fiber mat that offers the integrity of field-cut sod without the use of mineral soil growing medium. This research was conducted to determine the feasibility of producing warm-season turfgrass sod on such a biodegradable organic mat. Seeded turfgrass plots contained 4.9 lb/1000 ft2 (24 g.m−2) of pure live seed planted on a 66-lb/1000 ft2 (325-g.m−2) organic fiber mat carrier placed atop either 66- or 132-lb/1000 ft2 (325- or 650-g.m−2) organic fiber mats. In an experiment using vegetative material, stolons were applied at rates of 16.4 ft3/1000 ft2 (0.82 L.m−2) over 132- or 198-lb/1000 ft2 (650- or 975-g.m−2) organic fiber mats and covered with a rayon scrim. All plots were placed on 6-mil black plastic. Nitrogen was applied at 0.9 lb/1000 ft2 (4.4 g.m−2) weekly in addition to a monthly micronutrient application. Bermudagrass (Cynodon σππ.) had quicker establishment than other grasses in the study, with stolonized and seeded plots achieving ≈100% coverage by 9 weeks in 1995 and 6 weeks in 1996, respectively. By 15 weeks after planting in 1995, the plot coverage ratings for seeded centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack. `Common'] and all stolonized grass plots of centipedegrass, zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud. `Meyer'), and St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze `Raleigh'] were 91% or higher. The results were much less favorable in 1996 than 1995 due to a later planting date and an irrigation failure.

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Reagan W. Hejl, Benjamin G. Wherley, James C. Thomas, and Richard H. White

temperatures were set to 30/23 °C (day/night) for both studies. Six weeks before each study, 10.2 cm diameter washed sod plugs of ‘Tifway’ bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis Burt Davy) were established in 36 lysimeters constructed from

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Kurt Steinke, David R. Chalmers, Richard H. White, Charles H. Fontanier, James C. Thomas, and Benjamin G. Wherley

the majority of soil, labeled, placed on pallets, and stored overnight in a refrigerated truck trailer. The washed sod was brought to the experimental site the next morning for planting. Planting dates were 20 Sept. 2005 and 22 Sept. 2006. Sod was

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Monica L. Elliott, J.A. McInroy, K. Xiong, J.H. Kim, H.D. Skipper, and E.A. Guertal

cultivar ‘Crenshaw’, with the North Carolina site planted using seed and the Alabama site planted using washed sod that had been grown on plastic. The hybrid bermudagrass putting greens were located at the Cougar Point Golf Course, Kiawah Island, SC, and

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John M. Kauffman, John C. Sorochan, and Dean A. Kopsell

‘Champion’ bermudagrass, ‘SeaDwarf’ seashore paspalum, and ‘Diamond’ zoysiagrass were established in 1 × 4-m plots from washed sod in July 2008 in a randomized complete block design with three replications, in which the cultivar was the treatment factor

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Carl J. Della Torre III, William T. Haller, and Lyn A. Gettys

local garden supply retailer in Gainesville, FL. A hatchet was used to cut the sod into 7.5-inch-diameter rounds using a plastic pipe as a guide. All soil, dead vegetation, organic matter, and other materials were washed from the roots; these washed sod

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Manuel Chavarria, Benjamin Wherley, James Thomas, Ambika Chandra, and Paul Raymer

determined through laboratory testing to contain 0.7% organic matter by volume, with a total porosity of 39.6%. The washed sod plugs were allowed to establish fully into pots for 150 d in the greenhouse before initiating salinity treatments. During

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Daniel Hargey, Benjamin Wherley, Andrew Malis, James Thomas, and Ambika Chandra

scissors. After ≈4 weeks, grasses had fully grown into pots with a complete root system developed. Established plugs were then removed from pots, trimmed and washed free of soil to produce 9-inch 2 by 1-inch-deep sod plugs. To initiate both studies, washed

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Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, and Efthimia Nydrioti

Manilagrass was established by plugging on 19 Aug. 2009, 1 year before the initiation of moisture deficit study to achieve adequate and uniform growth between plots. Plugs having dimensions of 5 cm × 5 cm were prepared from washed sod. At each experimental