and medicinal values ( Zhao et al., 2008 ). The main biologically active components of jujube fruit are vitamin C (ascorbic acid), polyphenols such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, triterpenic acids, and polysaccharides. Jujube is also rich in fiber
Junxin Huang, Robert Heyduck, Richard D. Richins, Dawn VanLeeuwen, Mary A. O’Connell, and Shengrui Yao
Shiva Ram Bhandari, Bo-Deul Jung, Hum-Young Baek, and Young-Sang Lee
., 2006 ). A number of phytochemicals that are present in peppers such as phenolics, vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids may contribute to antioxidant activity and consequently show various pharmacological and nutritional activities ( Balasundram et al
Wilmer A. Barrera and David H. Picha
Water-soluble vitamins, including AA and B vitamins, are essential compounds for adequate functioning of the human body. They play important roles as coenzymes in a wide variety of metabolic reactions that sustain life ( Kawasaki and Egi, 2000
Sofia Caretto, Angelo Parente, Francesco Serio, and Pietro Santamaria
into sink organs ( Bergmann, 1992 ; Marschner, 1995 ). In muskmelon, fruits from plants receiving weekly foliar/spray K applications matured 2 d earlier and had significantly higher soluble solid concentration, total sugar, ascorbic acid (vitamin C
Muttalip Gündoğdu, Tuncay Kan, and Mustafa Kenan Gecer
phenolic content is found to be correlated with reduced incidences of heart diseases in epidemiological studies ( Criqui and Ringel, 1994 ; Renaud and de Lorgeril, 1992 ). The anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties of vitamins A, C, E, β-carotene, and
Adel F. Ahmed, Hongjun Yu, Xueyong Yang, and Weijie Jiang
cancer, anemia, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, and it is becoming increasingly important for growers who want to satisfy the demand of consumers for products with a high content of health-promoting constituents. Vitamin C is an important
Claire H. Luby, Rachael Vernon, Hiroshi A. Maeda, and Irwin L. Goldman
Vitamin E is a group of eight lipid-soluble antioxidants (α-, β-, γ-, and δ- tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as tocochromanols) that are synthesized in the plastids of plants, algae, and some cyanobacteria ( Mène-Saffrané and
M. Wang and I.L. Goldman
The importance of folic acid in the human diet has been recognized in recent years by major increases in government recommended allowances. Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important vegetable source of folic acid, however little is known about the extent of variation for native folic acid content in red beet germplasm. A total of 18 red beet entries, including 11 hybrids (F1) and seven open-pollinated cultivars (OP), were evaluated for free folic acid content (FFAC) in replicated field experiments during 1993 and 1994. Significant differences among entries were detected in all studies. FFAC ranged from 3.3 to 15.2 μg·g-1 on a dry mass basis. A significant entry × year interaction was detected. Changes in rank of entries between years were minimal among F1 hybrids, while the changes in rank among OP cultivars were large. These data demonstrate significant variability among cultivated red beet germplasm sources for FFAC. Entries with high FFAC may be useful for increasing levels of this vitamin in red beet.
Plants are the foundation for a significant part of human medicine and for many of the most widely used drugs designed to prevent, treat, and cure disease. Folkloric information concerning traditional remedies for disease has had inestimable value in establishing familial and cultural linkages. During the 20th century, modern medical science in the U.S. and other developed countries ushered in a new era focused on synthetic medicines. Even though many of these compounds were based on natural compounds found in plants, the drive towards synthetic pharmaceuticals created a knowledge gap concerning the health functionality of plants, crops, and food. Paralleling this development, biochemists and nutritional scientists pioneered the discovery of vitamins during the early decades of the 20th century. This research paved the way for dietary guidelines based on empirical data collected from animal feeding trials and set the stage for the current emphasis on phytonutrients. Three primary stages characterize the use of fruits and vegetable in human health. The first stage concerns the observation that many fruit and vegetable crops were originally domesticated for their medicinal properties. Making their way into the diet for this purpose, fruit and vegetable crops remained on the fringe from a culinary point of view. The second stage began when the role of vitamins became more widely understood, and fruit and vegetable plants were quickly recognized as a rich source of certain vitamins, minerals, and fiber. At this point, they became more than just an afterthought in the diet of most U.S. citizens. Cartoon icons such as Popeye made the case for the health functionality of leafy greens, while parents schooled their children on the virtues of carrots (Daucus carota), broccoli (Brassica oleracea), and green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). This renaissance resulted in large increases in fresh fruit and vegetable consumption across the country, a trend that continues to this day. The third phase can be characterized by the recognition that fruit and vegetable crops contain compounds that have the potential to influence health beyond nutritional value. These so-called functional foods figure prominently in the dietary recommendations developed during the last decades of the 20th century. In recent years, surveys suggest nearly two-thirds of grocery shoppers purchase food specifically to reduce the risk of, or manage a specific health condition. Evidence abounds that consumers, including Baby Boomers, choose foods for specific health benefits, such as the antioxidant potential of vegetables, suggesting high levels of nutritional literacy. Clinical and in vitro data have, to some degree, supported the claims that certain foods have the potential to deter disease, however much research remains to be conducted in order to definitively answer specific dietary-based questions about food and health.
Huating Dou* and Gary A. Coates
Influence of 1-MCP application in citrus fruit juice color and vitamin C concentration was determined for `Fallglo' tangerines, `Valencia' oranges, and white `Marsh' grapefruit. MCP was applied at 500 μL·L-1 for `Fallglo', and 1000 μL·L-1 for `Valencia' oranges and `Marsh' grapefruit at 75 °F for 7 hours in a container of 3' × 3' × 3.5' dimension. After three months storage at 40 °F and 93% relative humidity, vitamin C concentration in juice (mg/100 mL) was higher in MCP treated than non-treated `Valencia' oranges (37.1 vs. 30.6) and `Fallglo' tangerines (26.9 vs. 24.0). No difference was found in vitamin C concentration from `Marsh' grapefruit juice either treated (27.9) or non-treated (28.7) with MCP. Forty percent of vitamin C concentration was lost from one month after packing to the third month in storage for white `Marsh' grapefruit. Vitamin C loss was much slower for tangerines in comparison to grapefruit in postharvest. Juice color was not influenced by the MCP application for `Valencia' oranges while Hue and Chroma were improved in treated fruits for `Fallglo' tangerines and `Marsh' grapefruit compared to non-treated fruits. Applying MCP before degreening reduced vitamin C degradation 6 weeks after packing but not at 12 weeks for `Fallglo' tangerines. However, fruit color was improved at 6 and 12 weeks of storage. These results are important for postharvest quality management of citrus fruit and juice.