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Adel F. Ahmed, Hongjun Yu, Xueyong Yang and Weijie Jiang

cancer, anemia, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, and it is becoming increasingly important for growers who want to satisfy the demand of consumers for products with a high content of health-promoting constituents. Vitamin C is an important

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Junxin Huang, Robert Heyduck, Richard D. Richins, Dawn VanLeeuwen, Mary A. O’Connell and Shengrui Yao

and medicinal values ( Zhao et al., 2008 ). The main biologically active components of jujube fruit are vitamin C (ascorbic acid), polyphenols such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, triterpenic acids, and polysaccharides. Jujube is also rich in fiber

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Huating Dou* and Gary A. Coates

Influence of 1-MCP application in citrus fruit juice color and vitamin C concentration was determined for `Fallglo' tangerines, `Valencia' oranges, and white `Marsh' grapefruit. MCP was applied at 500 μL·L-1 for `Fallglo', and 1000 μL·L-1 for `Valencia' oranges and `Marsh' grapefruit at 75 °F for 7 hours in a container of 3' × 3' × 3.5' dimension. After three months storage at 40 °F and 93% relative humidity, vitamin C concentration in juice (mg/100 mL) was higher in MCP treated than non-treated `Valencia' oranges (37.1 vs. 30.6) and `Fallglo' tangerines (26.9 vs. 24.0). No difference was found in vitamin C concentration from `Marsh' grapefruit juice either treated (27.9) or non-treated (28.7) with MCP. Forty percent of vitamin C concentration was lost from one month after packing to the third month in storage for white `Marsh' grapefruit. Vitamin C loss was much slower for tangerines in comparison to grapefruit in postharvest. Juice color was not influenced by the MCP application for `Valencia' oranges while Hue and Chroma were improved in treated fruits for `Fallglo' tangerines and `Marsh' grapefruit compared to non-treated fruits. Applying MCP before degreening reduced vitamin C degradation 6 weeks after packing but not at 12 weeks for `Fallglo' tangerines. However, fruit color was improved at 6 and 12 weeks of storage. These results are important for postharvest quality management of citrus fruit and juice.

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Christopher A. Frank, Robert G. Nelson, Eric H. Simonne, Bridget K. Behe and Amarat H. Simonne

Most bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) produced and consumed are green. However, yellow, red, orange, white, black, and purple bell peppers are also available. While bell pepper consumption in the United States has been increasing in the past 10 years, limited information is available on how their color, retail price, and vitamin C content influence consumer preferences. A conjoint analysis of 435 consumer responses showed that, for the total sample, color was about three times more important than retail price in shaping consumers' purchase decisions, while vitamin C content was nearly irrelevant. Six distinct consumer segments were identified through cluster analysis. Four segments favored green peppers, while one segment favored yellow and one favored brown. Demographic variables generally were not good predictors of segment membership, but several behavioral variables, such as past bell pepper purchases, were significantly related to segment membership. While green is generally the preferred color, market segments exist for orange, red, yellow, and even brown peppers. Applications to marketing strategies suggested that price sensitivity could explain why green peppers were priced individually, but those of other colors were priced by weight, and that promotion of increased vitamin C content would be most effective if associated specifically with yellow and orange peppers.

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Amarat H. Simonne, Eric H. Simonne, Ronald R. Eitenmiller, Nancy R. Green, Joe A. Little, John T. Owen, Marvin E. Ruf and Jim A. Pitts

Vitamin C (VC) levels (mg/l00 g FW) were determined in 10 varieties of colored bell pepper grown under different field conditions. VC was determined by the microfluorometric method. `Orobelle' (169 mg), `King Arthur' (143 mg), `Valencia' (141 mg), and `Chocolate Bell' (134 mg) had significantly higher VC levels than `Dove' (109 mg), `Ivory' (106 mg), `Blue Jay' (93 mg), `Canary' (90 mg), and `Black Bird' (65 mg). The largest variability (53 mg) in VC levels were observed for varieties that had the highest VC content. Mean VC levels were 143a, 143a, 141a, 136a, 108ab, 93bc, and 63c for the yellow, red, orange, brown, white, purple, and black colors, respectively. Since the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for VC is 60 mg per day, these results suggested that a 100-g serving of fresh bell pepper or less would supply 100% RDA of VC. Therefore, after selecting a color, growers still have the freedom to grow a variety that performs well in their area to produce peppers of high VC contents.

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Shigenori Yaguchi, Masanori Atarashi, Masatoshi Iwai, Shin-ichi Masuzaki, Naoki Yamauchi and Masayoshi Shigyo

. fistulosum –8A disomic additions ( Shigyo et al., 2003 ). In the present study, we attempted to breed for increased vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content in A. fistulosum via the chromosome doubling of an ascorbic acid-rich A. fistulosum –shallot monosomic

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Young-Sang Lee, Yong-Ho Kim and Sung-Bae Kim

To study the effects of chitosan on the productivity and nutritional quality of soybean (Glycine max L.) sprouts, soybean seeds were soaked in solutions containing 1,000 ppm chitosan of low (<10 kDa), medium (50 to 100 kDa), or high (>1,000 kDa) molecular weight, and the respiration, growth, and vitamin C content of the sprouts were subsequently evaluated. Sprouts treated with high molecular weight chitosan exhibited a significant increase in respiration, 5%, within 1 day of treatment. Chitosan effectively increased the growth of the sprouts: sprouts treated with high molecular weight chitosan showed increases of 3%, 1%, 3%, 1%, and 12% in the total length, hypocotyl length, root length, hypocotyl thickness, and fresh weight, respectively, as compared to a control. The growth-improving effects of chitosan were proportional to the molecular weight of the molecule used in the treatment. Chitosan treatment did not result in any significant reduction in vitamin C content or postharvest chlorophyll formation, traits that determine the nutritional and marketing values of soybean sprouts. All these results suggest that soaking soybean seeds in a solution of chitosan, especially of high molecular weight, may effectively enhance the productivity of soybean sprouts without adverse effects on the nutritional and postharvest characteristics.

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Jianhua Liu, Yuzhen Yang and Xuexiao Zou

990 Capsicum annuum varieties were assessed at the seedling stage in greenhouse for their resistance to TMV(T), CMV(C) and anthracnose(A), and their mature (purple-red) fruits were analyzed for the content of dry matter(DM), vitamin C(VC) and capsaicin(CA). The data were eventually analyzed by means of correlation and path coefficient analysis. The result was as follows: the content of DM had little positive effect but significantly (P=O.O1) negative effect on the resistance to TWV, CMV and anthracnose, i.e. Pdt=0.0066, Pdc=(-0 .1364**), Pda=(-0.1881**); whereas the content of VC or CA respectively exerted positive effect, even significantly (P=0.01) positive effect, on the resistance to TMV, CMV and anthracnose, i.e. Pvt=0.0756**, Pvc=0.0093, Pva=0.2069** and Pct=0.2003**, Pcc=0.2300**, Pca=0.0091.

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Yong Zhang, Chunxia Fu, Yujing Yan, Yan’an Wang, Ming Li, Meixiang Chen, Jianping Qian, Xinting Yang and Shuhan Cheng

sugar, titratable acidity, and vitamin C concentration. Some flesh was taken from the mixture and dried in an oven at 60 °C for determination of Zn concentration. The soluble sugar concentration was determined using anthrone colorimetry ( Li, 1994 ). The

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Dilip R. Panthee, Chunxue Cao, Spencer J. Debenport, Gustavo R. Rodríguez, Joanne A. Labate, Larry D. Robertson, Andrew P. Breksa III, Esther van der Knaap and Brian B. McSpadden Gardener

content, TSS, vitamin C, and TTA content ( Causse et al., 2002 , 2007 ; Chaib et al., 2006 ). However, a tomato line with improved fruit quality in one location may not necessarily perform the same in another location; the phenomenon of performing