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Christian Nansen, Rachel Purington, and Machiko Murdock

concept of optical (remote) sensing as a method to improve and automate phytotoxicity assessments of ornamental crops. Assessment of phytotoxicity in ornamental plants is typically based on visual inspection of leaves, shoots, or flowers at different

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Thomas E. Marler and Aubrey Moore

. Results and Discussion Thorough visual inspection of Cycas revoluta cataphylls before removal of tomentum revealed no apparent presence of CAS ( Fig. 1C ). After removal of tomentum, heavy CAS density was observed on underlying cataphyll surfaces of

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Gehendra Bhattarai and Shawn A. Mehlenbacher

polymorphic based on visual inspection of aligned sequences. After amplification of 24 diverse accessions followed by separation on agarose gels, 195 were scored as polymorphic. Fluorescent forward primers were ordered for these 195, which were then used to

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N.K. Lownds and W.A. Mackay

Water loss of Nerium oleander growing in two soil types was determined from mid-June through mid-October. Plants (1 year old, 3.8 liter) were obtained from a local nursery and transplanted in May into 18.9-liter Iysimeter pots containing either clay loam or bluepoint sand. Controls were lysimeter pots containing each soil type but without plants. Irrigation was applied at two rates, approximately field (pot) capacity and 50% of that amount. Irrigation frequency was determined by visual inspection of the plants and was held constant for both irrigation rates in a given soil type. Frequency ranged from 2 to 3 days for the sand and 2 to 5 days for the clay loam. Water loss was determined every 24 h. Plant water loss was higher at the higher irrigation rate. Decreasing irrigation rate by 50% resulted in a 20% to 40% reduction in plant water use in clay loam and a 15% to 30% reduction in sand without affecting plant quality. Plant water loss in the sandy soil was ≈50% greater than in clay loam 48 h after irrigation. Implications of these findings in developing an optimum irrigation model for landscape plants will be considered.

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China F. Lunde, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher, and David C. Smith

Ninety hazelnut (Corylus sp.) genotypes were surveyed for response to the eastern filbert blight pathogen [Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller] following greenhouse inoculation using a combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and visual inspection for cankers. Most were cultivars of the European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) and a few were interspecific hybrids. Six genotypes did not display signs of the pathogen or symptoms of disease: `Closca Molla', `Ratoli', `Yoder #5', `Potomac', `Medium Long', and `Grand Traverse'. `Closca Molla' and `Ratoli', both minor Spanish cultivars, are superior in many respects to `Gasaway', which has been extensively used as a completely resistant parent in breeding. `Potomac' and `Yoder #5' have C. americana Marsh. in their pedigrees, `Grand Traverse' is one-quarter C. colurna, and the origin of `Medium Long' is uncertain. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker generated by primer UBC 152, which is linked to the single dominant resistance gene of `Gasaway', is absent in these six genotypes, and thus they appear to be novel sources of genetic resistance to this devastating disease.

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Honglin Chen, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher, and David C. Smith

A diverse collection of 58 hazelnut accessions, including Corylus avellana L. and interspecific hybrids, were evaluated for their response to the eastern filbert blight pathogen Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller after greenhouse inoculation. Evaluations were made using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and visual inspection. Forty-five of these became infected, 12 remained free of infection, and one gave inconclusive results. The 12 accessions showing complete resistance were European hazelnuts ‘Culpla’ from Spain and CCOR 187 from Finland; C. americana × C. avellana hybrids ‘G081S’, CCOR 506, and Weschcke selections TP1, TP2 and TP3; C. colurna × C. avellana hybrids Chinese Trazels Gellatly #6 and #11; Turkish Trazel Gellatly #3 and backcross hybrid ‘Lisa’; and C. heterophylla var. sutchuensis × C. avellana hybrid ‘Estrella #1’. In a second test, exposure of potted trees under structures topped with diseased wood confirmed the complete resistance of ‘Santiam’, four pollinizers, and ‘Ratoli’. However, a few small cankers were observed on ‘Closca Molla’ from Spain and OSU 729.012, with resistance from C. californica (A.DC.) Rose, in contrast to the results of earlier greenhouse inoculations.

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Alejandra A. Salgado and John R. Clark

The University of Arkansas (UA) blackberry breeding program began in 1964, with the aim to provide high-quality fruit to the fresh market industry. One of the important traits for successful blackberry (Rubus subgenus Rubus Watson) postharvest handling is flesh firmness, so developing cultivars with high firmness is a top priority for the fresh market blackberry breeding programs across the world. In particular, the Arkansas blackberry program has a wide range of genotypes with exceptional firmness characteristics, including fruit with a unique crispy texture and firmness. During 2013 and 2014, fruit firmness measurements were done on 15 Arkansas genotypes including those with crispy and noncrispy textures. Firmness measurements consisted of fruit compression, skin drupelet penetration, and receptacle penetration. Confocal photos were taken on sections of berries of a subset of crispy and noncrispy genotypes, and color reversion was evaluated among these genotypes after storage. Compression force values differentiated crispy and noncrispy genotypes, with average values of 11.8 Newton (N) and 8.0 N, respectively. Drupelet penetration force was also higher for crispy genotypes averaging 0.23 N and noncrispy 0.15 N; similarly, receptacle penetration force averaged 0.20 N for crispy and 0.18 N for noncrispy genotypes. Visual inspection of fruit tissue revealed that drupelet mesocarp cells and receptacle cells and cell walls of crispy genotypes maintained their structure during ripening and did not break apart, whereas noncrispy genotypes did not maintain their structure and cellular integrity. Color reversion is a postharvest disorder in which drupelets of blackberry fruits turn red after being black at harvest. Therefore, it has a negative impact for growers, shippers, and consumers. After storage at 5 °C for 7 days, crispy genotypes expressed low levels of reversion compared with noncrispy genotypes. For crispy genotypes, 13.2% of drupelets developed color reversion, whereas a 41.0% developed this disorder in noncrispy genotypes, implying a better postharvest potential of this texture.

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H.E. Winzeler and J.R. Schupp

‘Honeycrisp’. The determination of apple blush coverage has conventionally been conducted by trained viewers who rely on visual inspection and expert judgment to compare candidate apples with reference color visual aids defining blush for particular apple

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Richard D. Richins, Laura Hernandez, Barry Dungan, Shane Hambly, F. Omar Holguin, and Mary A. O'Connell

investigated: 40 °C, 3100 psi; 50 °C, 4000 psi; and 60 °C, 4800 psi. Visual inspection of the remaining residue indicated that maximal extraction of the pigments occurred at 60 °C, 4800 psi. TLC analysis of the pigments extracted by the SFE demonstrated that

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Samuel G. Obae, Mark H. Brand, and Richard C. Kaitany

restricted. For instance, only 11 B. thunbergii cultivars classified as highly resistant to BSR are allowed entry into Canada ( CFIA, 2012 ). Identification and verification of approved cultivars is mainly by visual inspection of their morphological