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John E. Erwin and Royal D. Heins

Abbreviations: DT, day temperature; DIF, difference between day temperature and night temperature NT, night temperature; VB, visible bud stage. 1 Present address: Horticultural Science, University of Minnesota, 1970 Folwell Ave., Saint Paul, MN

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Allan M. Armitage

Hamelia patens Jacq. (Texas firebush) is a long-day plant for flower initiation and flower development; however, flower development is more sensitive to photoperiod than is flower initiation. The critical photoperiod for flower development at 25C is between 12 and 16 hours. Flowering was delayed under low light conditions, and plant dry weight was heavier and flowering time was earlier for plants grown at a constant 25 or 30C than at 20C. A greenhouse environment with a 16-hour photoperiod and moderately high temperature (25C) would be appropriate for production of H. patens.

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Robert D. Berghage and Royal D. Heins

Abbreviations: ADT, average daily temperature; DIF, DT - NT; DIBE, days from pinching to day internode started to elongate; DT, day temperature; N, total number of internodes below inflorescence; NT, night temperature; VB, date of first visible bud

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H.F. Wilkins, W.E. Healy, and K.L. Grueber

Abbreviations: P to F, planting to flower; P to SD, planting to beginning of short days; P to SD + 3, planting to end of 3 weeks of short days; P to VB, planting to visible bud; SD to F, beginning of short days to flower; SD to SD + 3, first 3 weeks

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Michael Alden and James E. Faust

photoperiod. For example, Miller and Kiplinger (1962 ) reported that the time from flower initiation to a macroscopically visible flower bud, termed visible bud, increased from 17 to 23 to 38 d as the NL decreased from 13 to 12 to 11 h, respectively, for

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Ariana P. Torres and Roberto G. Lopez

such as leaf unfolding and expansion, plant height, leaf color, number of visible buds and open flowers, and time to flower are reduced when plants are grown at T opt ( Yuan et al., 1998 ). Optimal temperature ranges vary between and within species and

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Ockert Greyvenstein, Brent Pemberton, Terri Starman, Genhua Niu, and David Byrne

development from budbreak until flowers open. Evidence suggests that rose flower size and quality are most sensitive to high-temperature stress at or after the visible bud stage of development. Rising temperature before the visible bud stage did not affect the

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Mary Vargo and James E. Faust

ADT on bud expansion from visible bud to open flower for three hybrid impatiens cultivars and develop a model to predict the time to flower. Materials and methods General procedures A total of 105 shoot-tip cuttings were taken from stock

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Hadi Susilo, Ying-Chun Peng, and Yao-Chien Alex Chang

were harvested 18 weeks after the start of the experiment, at which point the inflorescences were at the visible bud stage. Each plant was separated into roots, newly grown leaves (i.e., those that developed after the start of the experiment), mature

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Shing-Shan Tsai and Yao-Chien Alex Chang

potentially flowering stem reaching 0.5 cm in length), days to visible bud (when the length of the first flower bud was ≈0.5 cm), days to first flower open and 90% flower opening, inflorescence length (at full bloom), flower-stalk diameter, first flower