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H.R. Pappu, S.D. Wyatt, and K.L. Druffel

Dahlia is an important ornamental crop in the U.S. The economic value of the crop is often affected by viral diseases. Of several viruses that infect dahlia, dahlia mosaic virus (DMV) is of most concern. However, little or no information is available about its distribution. A survey of dahlias in several states in the U.S. was carried out during 2003 and 2004. Samples from CA, GA, MD, ME, MT, NM, PA, OR, and WA were tested for DMV. To develop a molecular detection assay, the viral genome was cloned and sequenced and based on the sequence information, DMV-specific primers were used in a PCR-based assay. DMV was detected in >90% of the samples tested. Based on the detection of DMV, a wide range of symptoms were found to be associated with DMV infection. A real-time PCR assay was adapted for rapid detection of DMV. Considering its widespread occurrence, steps are needed to limit its further spread. An effective intervention program would include use of virus-free material to minimize its impact. Availability of a rapid and sensitive detection method such as the once described should facilitate not only production of virus-free dahlias but elimination of virus infected material from breeding and propagating stocks. This is the first report of a survey to determine the extent of DMV incidence in dahlias.

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S. Soria, C. Taboada, R. Rojas, T. Evans, V. D. Damsteegt, and S. Kitto

Mashua, closely related to the garden nasturtium, has been cultivated by people of the Andean highlands since Incan time; however, it is disappearing from Ecuadorean markets due to decreasing yields. The main objectives of this research were to compare 1) in vitro proliferation and rooting, and reestablishment, and 2) field plant qualities such as vigor and yield between virus-infected and virus-free plant material. Virus-free material was obtained from shoot apices about 0.2 mm in size isolated from virus-infected, in vitro maintained, microcuttings of a number of mashua lines. Mashua line had an effect on proliferation, reestablishment and tuber yield. Virus infection appeared to have a detrimental effect on the general in vitro performance of all lines. There were no differences in reestablishment between the virus-infected and virus-free plants. Although there were no overall yield differences between the virus-infected and virus-free lines, virus-infected lines produced significantly more large tubers.

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Sahar Eid, Keri L. Druffel, Dayle E. Saar, and Hanu R. Pappu

Dahlia mosaic is a serious disease affecting dahlias. In addition to the Dahlia mosaic virus (DMV) reported previously, we characterized two putative new caulimoviruses, tentatively designated as DMV-D10 and Dahlia common mosaic virus (DCMV), from dahlia. To better understand their relative incidence in dahlia, a total of 213 samples were collected during 2007 and 2008 from several varieties of cultivated dahlia (D. variabilis) in the United States. Samples were tested for the three caulimoviruses using virus-specific primers in a polymerase chain reaction. Amplicons were cloned and sequenced to confirm the infection of dahlia with these viruses. Results showed that DMV-D10 was the most prevalent (94%) followed by DCMV (48.5%) and DMV (23%). Mixed infections were common and viruses were detected irrespective of symptom expression at the time of sampling. Two percent of the samples were not infected by any of the three tested caulimoviruses. Results suggest that caulimovirus infections are widespread in dahlia and highlight the need for testing and production of virus-free material to reduce their spread.

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Géza Bujdosó, Attila Fodor, and Anita Karacs-Végh

“traditional” hand grafting propagation started in 2016. It is easy to make hand graftings with ‘BD6’. Success producing grafted ‘BD6’ trees is similar to that of other cultivars. ‘BD6’ is in the stage of propagation. Virus-free material is available in the

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Jorge Pinochet

Community Plant Variety Office, 49101 Angers, Cedex 02, France, with the reference of requesting authority N° 2006/2252. Virus- free material is available from Agromillora Iberia, El Rebato s/n, 08739 Subirats Barcelona, Spain. ‘Greenpac’ is currently

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Jorge Pinochet

. Availability Registration of ‘Replantpac’ is in progress at the Community Plant Variety Office, 49101 Angers, Cedex 02, France, with the reference of requesting authority N° 2009/0230. Virus-free material is available from Agromillora Iberia, El Rebato s

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Thomas Horgan, and S. Marie Rogers

spearmint and peppermint. Controlled environment experiment. For the pot study we used certified virus-free material of ‘Native’ spearmint ( Mentha spicata L.) and ‘Black Mitcham’ peppermint ( Mentha × piperita L.). Transplants (10 to 12 cm high

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Beatrice Nesi, Debora Trinchello, Sara Lazzereschi, Antonio Grassotti, and Barbara Ruffoni

verify the sanitary status of in vitro meristem-derived plants. Han et al. (2006) obtained a good percentage of virus-free material in vitro by using anther-derived callus in Lilium × ‘Enchantment’, but this method may induce somaclonal variants. We

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V. Ognjanov

. ‘Smaragd’ is not a patented cultivar. Budwood source trees are virus-tested negative. Virus-free material will be available in 2 years time from the Naktuinbouw Test Center Horst, Holland. Literature Cited De Wit, I. Cook, C.N. Keulemans, J. 2004

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov and Tess Astatkie

2’ was established at the North Mississippi Research and Extension Center in the spring of 2007 using a certified virus-free material, as described in Zheljazkov et al. (2010a) , and was maintained as perennial thereafter. The plant material used in