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Beatriz M. Díaz, Ricardo Biurrún, Aránzazu Moreno, Miguel Nebreda, and Alberto Fereres

Ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing plastic films are being used as a photoselective barrier to control insect vectors and associated virus diseases in different horticultural crops. A 2-year experiment was carried out in northeastern Spain (Navarra) to evaluate the impact of a UV-blocking film (AD-IR AV) on the population density of insect pests and the spread of insect-transmitted virus diseases associated with head lettuce [Lactuca sativa (L.)]. Results showed that the UV-absorbing plastic film did not loose its ability to filter UV radiation after three lettuce crop cycles (14 months). The UV-absorbing plastic film was effective in reducing the abundance and in delaying the colonization of lettuce by aphids [Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Acyrthosiphum lactucae (Passerini)]. A significant increase in the percentage of marketable plants was achieved under UV-absorbing films due to a reduction in the number of plants infested by aphids and by insect-transmitted virus diseases (mainly potyviruses). Also the UV-absorbing plastic films were effective in reducing the population density of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and the spread of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) as well as the population density of the lepidopteran pest, Autographa gamma (L.), a common pest of lettuce in Spain. However, no effective control of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) was achieved. The results showed that UV-absorbing plastic films are a very promising tool to protect greenhouse lettuce from the main pests and insect-transmitted virus diseases occurring in northeastern Spain.

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Tahir Rashid, Donn T. Johnson, Don C. Steinkraus, and Curt R. Rom

thank L.A. Falcon (Univ. California-Berkeley) for providing codling moth granulosis virus, codling moth eggs and rearing procedures. We also thank D.O. Hathaway and P. Wilson (USDA, Yakima, Wash.) for the thinning apples and codling moth eggs and Biosys

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Michael G. Bausher

can provide an ideal mode of transmission of disease inoculum of viral origin. Although all plants can be subject to infection by mechanical transmission of viruses ( Boyle et al., 1997 ), crops such as heirloom tomatoes are especially prone to

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Ricardo Goenaga, Adolfo Quiles, and A. Graves Gillaspie

of cowpea breeding programs ( Ehlers and Hall, 1997 ; Singh, et al., 2003 ). Several improved cowpea varieties with resistance to Cowpea yellow mosaic virus and Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus have been released for African growers by the

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James D. McCreight

I thank J.A. Principe for assistance in the field tests, Patti Fashing for assistance in the greenhouse tests, A. Cortez for virus isolates, and H.-Y Lui and G.W. Wisler for their help in virus confirmation. This research was funded in part

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Clinton C. Shock, Erik Feibert, Lynn Jensen, S. Krishna Mohan, and Lamont D. Saunders

degree of single centers ( Cramer, 2006 ; Gamie et al., 1995 ; Wall et al., 1996 ;). Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) causes seed stalk and leaf tissue necrosis and has recently been recognized as a serious disease of onion ( Gent et al., 2006 ). IYSV was

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H. Brent Pemberton, Kevin Ong, Mark Windham, Jennifer Olson, and David H. Byrne

Rose rosette disease is incited by a negative-sense RNA virus (genus Emaravirus ), which is vectored by a wind-dispersed eriophyid mite ( P. fructiphilus ) ( Di Bello et al., 2015a ; Laney et al., 2011 ). Symptoms on roses include witches broom

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Rodomiro Ortiz

, England. Paper No. IITA/95/CP/15. I thank F. Gauhl, C. Pasberg-Gauhl, and D. Vuylsteke (IITA) for data collection on virus incidence in multilocational trials. Also acknowledged is the cooperation of partners in African National

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James D. McCreight, Hsing-Yeh Liu, and Thomas A. Turini

Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), adversely affects yield and quality of a wide range of vegetable and agronomic crops worldwide directly through feeding damage or indirectly as virus vectors ( Henneberry et al., 1998 ). It is

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Nihat Guner, Luis A. Rivera-Burgos, and Todd C. Wehner

, 2017 ). Plant diseases incited by viruses are a major limiting factor in commercial watermelon production worldwide. More than 10 viruses are known to be a problem in watermelon field production ( Ali et al., 2012 ; Wang et al., 2017 ). The major