the first example of association between a vacuolar sorting protein and a recessively inherited virus resistance in plants. In this research, we analyzed sequences of the VPS4-like gene from three sources of ZYMV resistance and two susceptible
Axel O. Ramírez-Madera and Michael J. Havey
One of the first major successes in the genetic engineering of useful traits into plants has been the engineering of virus resistance. The first example of genetically-engineered virus resistance was published in 1986, since then there have been more than 50 reports of genetically engineered plant virus resistance. These examples span a range of virus types, a variety of plant species, and have utilized several different types of genes. A unique feature of the genetically-engineered virus resistance is that the resistance genes came from the virus itself, rather than the host plant. Most examples have utilized coat protein genes, but more recently, replicase-derived genes have proved highly effective. Other strategies include the use of antisense or sense-defective sequences, and satellite or defective interfering RNAs. This talk will provide an overview of the different approaches, possible mechanisms, the crops and viruses to which they have been applied, and progress toward commercial applications.
Juan J. Ruiz, Belen Pico, Genyi Li, Vincent D'Antonio, Bryce Falk and Carlos F. Quiros
Resistance to Celery mosaic virus (CeMV) in celery [Apium graveolens L. var. dulce (Mill.) Pers.] is recessive and determined by the single gene, cmv. We report discovery of two polymerase chain reaction-based dominant markers tightly linked to cmv in segregating F2 and BC1 populations. Marker me1em2 is associated to the dominant (susceptibility allele) and the second marker, me8em2, to the recessive (resistance allele). Simultaneous screening for both markers in segregating populations allows for identification of both homozygous and heterozygous genotypes for disease resistance. This marker system can be used for early seedling selection, which will simplify and speed development of celery cultivars resistant to CeMV.
Jonathan R. Schultheis and S. Alan Walters
Yellow and zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultigens (breeding lines and cultivars) were evaluated over a 2-year (1995 and 1996) period in North Carolina. Yellow squash cultigens that performed well (based on total marketable yields) were `Destiny III', `Freedom III', `Multipik', XPHT 1815, and `Liberator III' in Fall 1995 and HMX 4716, `Superpik', PSX 391, `Monet', `Dixie', XPH 1780, and `Picasso' in Spring 1996. Some of the yellow squash cultigens evaluated had superior viral resistance: XPHT 1815, XPHT 1817, `Freedom III', `Destiny III', `Freedom II', TW 941121, `Prelude II', and `Liberator III' in Fall 1995 and XPHT 1815, `Liberator III', `Prelude II', and `Destiny III' in Fall 1996; all these cultigens were transgenic. The yellow squash cultigens that performed well (based on total marketable yields) in the Fall 1995 test had transgenic virus resistance (`Destiny III', `Freedom III', XPHT 1815, and `Liberator III') or had the Py gene present in its genetic background (`Multipik'). Based on total marketable yields, the best zucchini cultigens were XPHT 1800, `Tigress', XPHT 1814, `Dividend' (ZS 19), `Elite', and `Noblesse' in Fall 1995; and `Leonardo', `Tigress', `Hurricane', `Elite', and `Noblesse' in Spring 1996. The zucchini cultigens with virus resistance were TW 940966, XPHT 1814, and XPHT 1800 in Fall 1995 and XPHT 1800, XPHT 1776, XPHT 1777, XPHT 1814, and XPHT 1784 in Fall 1996. Even though TW 940966 had a high level of resistance in the Fall 1995 test, it was not as high yielding as some of the more susceptible lines. Viruses detected in the field were papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) for Fall 1995; while PRSV, zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and WMV were detected for Fall 1996. Summer squash cultigens transgenic for WMV and ZYMV have potential to improve yield, especially during the fall when viruses are more prevalent. Most transgenic cultigens do not possess resistance to PRSV, except XPHT 1815 and XPHT 1817. Papaya ringspot virus was present in the squash tests during the fall of both years. Thus, PRSV resistance must be transferred to the transgenic cultigens before summer squash can be grown during the fall season without the risk of yield loss due to viruses.
Jean-Michel Hily, Ralph Scorza* and Michel Ravelonandro
We have shown that high-level resistance to plum pox virus (PPV) in transgenic plum clone C5 is based on post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), otherwise termed RNA silencing (Scorza et al. Transgenic Res. 10:201-209, 2001). In order to more fully characterize RNA silencing in woody perennial crops, we investigated the production of short interfering RNA (siRNA) in transgenic plum clones C3 and C5, both of which harbor the capsid protein (CP) gene of PPV. We used as a control, plum PT-23, a clone only transformed with the two marker genes, NPTII and GUS. We show in the current report that C5 constitutively produces two classes of siRNA, the short (21-22 nucleotides) and long (≈27 nucleotides) species in the absence of PPV inoculation. Transgenic susceptible clone C3 and the control clone PT-23, when healthy, produce no siRNA. Upon infection, these clones produce only the short siRNA (21-22 nt). This siRNA production suggests that plum trees naturally respond to virus infection by initiating PTGS or PTGS-like mechanisms. This study also suggests that high-level virus resistance in woody perennials may require the production of both the short and long size classes of siRNA, as are produced by the resistant C5 plum clone.
Karen R. Harris, Kai-Shu Ling, W. Patrick Wechter and Amnon Levi
-the tail of two proteins Mol. Plant Pathol. 8 139 150 Guner, N. 2004 Papaya ringspot virus watermelon strain and zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance in watermelon Dept. Hort. Sci., North Carolina State Univ Raleigh
resistance in the earliest plantings and gradually incorporate those with increased levels of virus resistance as the season progresses. Although cultural methods such as reflective plastic mulches can reduce levels of virus ( Boyhan et al., 2000 ); genetic
Yuanfu Ji, John W. Scott and David J. Schuster
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistance among the F 2 progeny derived from a F 1 hybrid H9205 that possesses the Ty-2 gene. After ≈8 weeks of exposure to viruliferous whiteflies, approximately one-third of the resistant plants were still symptomless
Yuanfu Ji, Jay W. Scott, David J. Schuster and Douglas P. Maxwell
genes are pyramided and this will have to be addressed. Literature Cited Agrama, H.A. Scott, J.W. 2006 Quantitative trait loci for tomato yellow leaf curl virus and tomato mottle virus resistance in tomato J