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Mark W. Farnham and Dean A. Kopsell

lutein (3R,3′R,6′β,ɛ−carotene-3,3′diol), an oxygenated xanthophyll, and β-carotene (β,β−carotene), a hydrocarbon carotene. β-carotene and also zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin are a group of carotenoids that contain two β

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Dean A. Kopsell, J. Scott McElroy, Carl E. Sams, and David E. Kopsell

, via phytoene synthase ( Gross, 1991 ). The carotenoid pathway branches at the cyclization reactions of lycopene to produce carotenoids with either two β-rings (e.g., β-carotene, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin) or carotenoids

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Dean A. Kopsell, Carl E. Sams, Dennis E. Deyton, Kristin R. Abney, David E. Kopsell, and Larry Robertson

). Carotenoid formation is highly conserved throughout all plant species with six primary functioning carotenoids (antheraxanthin, β-carotene, lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and zeaxanthin) normally present in leafy tissues ( Sandmann, 2001 ). Carotenoid

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Dean A. Kopsell and Carl E. Sams

Technologies). Peak assignment for individual pigments was performed by comparing retention times and line spectra obtained from photodiode array detection using external standards [antheraxanthin (ANT), BC, Chl a , Chl b , LUT, neoxanthin (NEO), violaxanthin

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Kathleen G. Haynes, Beverly A. Clevidence, David Rao, Bryan T. Vinyard, and J. Marion White

, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin. Potatoes are one of the most widely consumed vegetables in the world and potato production and consumption have been increasing in developing countries for decades ( Centro Internacional de la Papa, 2009 ). Although tuber

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Kathleen G. Haynes, Beverly A. Clevidence, David Rao, and Bryan T. Vinyard

to 28 Jan. 2010. Carotenoid extraction and identification. Carotenoid extraction and identification followed the procedures as reported in Haynes et al. (2010) . Statistical analyses. Variables analyzed were zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin

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Vincent Martineau, Mark Lefsrud, Most Tahera Naznin, and Dean A. Kopsell

pigment phytochemical concentrations among the LED, HPS, regular HPS, or control light treatments with the exception of violaxanthin at the P < 0.1 level but not at the P < 0.05 level ( Table 4 ). For violaxanthin, the control plants had the highest

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Wenhe Lu, Kathleen Haynes, Eugene Wiley, and Beverly Clevidence

The yellow pigment in potato (Solanum L. sp.) tuber flesh is caused by various carotenoids that may protect against cancer, cardiovascular disease, and macular eye degeneration. The objectives of this research were to 1) identify and quantify the carotenoids present in 11 diploid clones from a hybrid population of Solanum phureja ssp. phureja Juz. & Bukasov-S. stenotomum ssp. stenotomum Juz. & Bukasov and two tetraploid potato cultivars (the yellow-fleshed `Yukon Gold' and the white-fleshed `Superior'), and 2) determine the relationship between tuber yellow intensity and carotenoid content. Yellow intensity was measured by a colorimeter programmed to calculate a yellowness index, YI E-313. Carotenoid analyses were performed on an automated high-performance liquid chromatography system with software for integration and quantitation with detection at 450 nm using a diode array detector. Six major carotenoids were detected: neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein-5,6-epoxide, lutein, zeaxanthin, and an unknown carotenoid. Total carotenoid content in the yellow-fleshed diploid clones was 3 to 13 times higher than `Yukon Gold' and 4 to 22 times higher than `Superior'. Both total and individual carotenoid contents were positively correlated with tuber yellow intensity. There was an exponential relationship between total carotenoid content and tuber yellow intensity. This suggests that selecting for more intense yellow flesh will result in higher levels of carotenoids. These specific diploid clones were selected for this study because they produced at least five percent 2n pollen; they have the potential to make significant contributions to improving the nutritional status of tetraploid potatoes through 4x-2x hybridizations.

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Dean A. Kopsell, James T. Brosnan, Gregory R. Armel, and J. Scott McElroy

oxidative damage can occur or by active non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of excess light energy ( Demmig-Adams et al., 1996 ; Frank and Cogdell, 1996 ). The xanthophyll cycle (or the violaxanthin de-epoxidase cycle) is the primary cycle attributed to

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James T. Brosnan, Dean A. Kopsell, Matthew T. Elmore, Gregory K. Breeden, and Gregory R. Armel

The six primary carotenoids found in most plant species include zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, and neoxanthin ( Sandmann, 2001 ). Carotenoids are pigments integrated into light-harvesting complexes of chloroplasts that