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Aleta L Meyr

91 WORKSHOP 8 (Abstr. 1042-1045) Seed Vigor Testing and Utilization

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Ibrahim Demir, Tuba Celikkol, Golge Sarıkamıs and Ceren Eksi

flower seeds, e.g., summer sowing for fall planting or winter sowing for spring planting. Vigor tests help determine failures in emergence and stand establishment and identify the level of physiological aging of a seed lot and its potential for the

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Kay Oakley, Robert Geneve, Sharon Kester and Patchara Wonprasaid

Standardized seed vigor tests must be developed for greenhouse-grown flower species. Current vigor tests used to evaluate large-seeded agronomic crops are generally not useful for evaluating smaller-seeded flower species. One alternative is to use radicle length in seedlings grown under controlled environments as an indicator of seed vigor. For that purpose, a seed vigor test was developed that uses digital images taken using a flat bed scanner to measure radicle length in small-seeded flower species. A novel, cellulose substrate was used for germinating seeds. It provided similar moisture-holding properties to standard germination blotters used by commercial seed analysts, but is clear. This has allowed for quick image acquisition without removing seedlings from the petri dish. Correlations were made between seedling growth (radicle length, total seedling length, and total seedling area) with other vigor tests (saturated salts accelerated aging) and greenhouse plug flat emergence. For several seed lots of impatiens that varied in initial seed quality, radicle length after 4 days showed good correlations (>R 2 = 0.79) with other measures of seed vigor for describing seed quality. This system is an improvement over other attempts to use computer-aided assessment of digital images because it provides digital images that do not vary due to external lighting; it uses software that can evaluate radicle length in a petri dish assay that does not require a slant-board for straight radicle growth; it relies on standard germination technics used by every seed lab; it uses a clear substrate to replace the opaque blotter to allow digital images to be taken within the petri dish; and accurate measurements of seedling parts is performed in under 2 min per petri dish.

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Xiaolei Hu, Miller McDonald and David Tay

During the past 2 decades, automated plug production in the flower seed industry has created important requirements by growers for high-quality flower seeds. Using computerized imaging technology, a new seed vigor testing system, Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS), was developed at The Ohio State University. By analyzing the digital images of seedlings, it can detect and measure the length of hypocotyls and radicles separately, and then generate a value for the growth and uniformity each. This system provides a fast, labor-saving and objective approach to measuring seed quality. In this study, its capacity and correlation with field performance was studied and compared with other traditional tests, i.e. standard germination test, germinate rate, and accelerated aging test. Five species (dianthus, cleome, rudbeckia, salvia, and lettuce) were selected and their quality was tracked continuously by SVIS and other mentioned tests. It was found that stressed test (ageing test) was able to detect the quality deterioration earlier than others under ideal conditions, but SVIS could generate much more information, such as the growth, uniformity, and vigor level of the seed lot. Therefore, SVIS following 3-day ageing was developed and shown to be the most sensitive and comprehensive vigor test for those ornamental species mentioned above. Being fast and objective, this system will also benefit the global seed trade by providing a unique quality standard. In addition, it can also be of great usage to seed companies and germplasm centers worldwide for the routine quality track during shipment/storage and inventory management.

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Anwar A. Khan

ACC-derived ethylene production was used as an index of seed vigor of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), cabbage [Brassica oleracea (Capitata Group)], tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and sweet corn (Zea mays L.) seeds. Seeds were aged at 40C and 93% relative humidity over saturated solution of KH2PO4 for various times to obtain seeds of differing vigor. Naturally aged lettuce seeds, differing in vigor, were also used. Depending on the seed type, 0.25 to 2 mm ACC (saturating dose) was needed to produce maximal amounts of ethylene. Seeds in the presence of ACC produced a much larger amount of ethylene than those in the absence of ACC, the ACC-derived ethylene could be detected before germination, and ACC had no adverse effect on germination. ACC-derived ethylene production paralleled vigor loss as determined by a decrease in percentage germination over a soak period required for complete germination of nonaged seeds (16 hours for lettuce, 24 hours for cabbage, and 48 hours for tomato and sweet corn), an increase in mean germination time (determined for lettuce only), and a decrease in seedling growth (determined for snap bean only). Second degree polynomial and logarithmic equations generated for the relationship of ACC-derived ethylene production to germination or growth parameters following seed aging, provided good to excellent fit. As a vigor test, the ACC-ethylene procedure has several advantages over the non-ACC ethylene procedure: It improves the sensitivity of the test by enhancing ethylene production, permits detection of small differences in vigor, and allows detection of ethylene before germination within a few hours of soaking. Chemical name used: 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC).

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Richard L. Hassell, Robert J. Dufault and Tyron L. Phillips

Ten triploid and 25 diploid watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) selections were evaluated to determine the temperature range and length of test for which germination index (rate of germination over time) and germination percentages were maximum for expediting vigor and seed testing practices. Temperature interacted with watermelon selection indicating that certain selections germinated faster within specific, but differing temperature ranges. Within 2 days after starting the germination process, 90% of triploid selections and 96% of diploid selections germinated to their greatest level and prolonging germination data collection for one week did not change this relationship. Although optimal temperature ranges may differ among the selections, the one temperature within the range common for all selections evaluated that maximized germination was 85 to 90 °F (29.4 to 32.2 °C) for diploids and 85 °F for triploids.

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Richard L. Hassell, Robert J. Dufault and Tyron L. Phillips

Early spring sweet corn (Zea mays var. rugosa) is usually planted in cold soils at sub-optimal temperatures for seed germination. It is important for growers to understand the relationships among temperature, germination, and vigor of sweet corn in order to plan the earliest planting dates that will not significantly reduce plant stand. The objectives of this research were 1) to determine the minimum temperatures to germinate to 75%, (the minimum germination percent for interstate commerce) for 27 new sweet corn su (sugary), se (sugar enhancer), and sh2 (shrunken-2) cultivars; 2) to determine vigor differences among the phenotypes; and 3) to select the most promising se, su, and sh2 cultivars for cold tolerance and vigor for early spring planting. Seeds of each cultivar were placed along a temperature gradient on a thermogradient table, Type 5001 (Seed Processing Holland, Enkhuizen, The Netherlands), and allowed to germinate over a 7-day period. The gradient treatments were [±2 °F (1.1 °C)] 52, 56, 60, 64, 68, 72, 76, 80, 84, and 86 °F (11.1, 13.3, 15.6, 17.8, 20.0, 22.2, 24.4, 26.7, 28.9, and 30.0 °C). Germination data from thermogradient testing were used to determine the minimum temperatures and time required for su, se, and sh2 cultivars to germinate at ≥75%, defined as minimum acceptable germination percent (MAGP); and the minimum temperature to reach the maximum germination rate (MGR) for a cultivar, defined as the ability to germinate to MAGP at the same rate equally at low and high temperatures. Generally, su phenotypes germinated to MAGP within 4 days, with sh2 requiring 6 days, but with se requiring 5 days. We found that within each phenotype, however, cultivars reacted uniquely to temperature. The most vigorous and cold tolerant su cultivars were `NK 199' and `Merit' which germinated to MAGP at 52 °F with `NK 199' more vigorous than `Merit'. The su cultivar `Sweet G-90' was vigorous at warm temperatures, but the least cold tolerant and desirable for planting under cold conditions. Within the se cultivars, `Precious Gem', `July Gold', and `Imaculata' germinated to MAGP at 52 °F with `Precious Gem' requiring 6 days and `July Gold' and `Imaculata' requiring 7 days. `Accord' was the least cold tolerant se cultivar, requiring at least 60 °F for MAGP with a slow MGR, even at warm temperatures. None of the sh2 cultivars reached MAGP within 7 d at 52 °F, as was also observed for certain su and se cultivars.

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R.L. Sayers

91 WORKSHOP 8 (Abstr. 1042-1045) Seed Vigor Testing and Utilization

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Robert Conrad

91 WORKSHOP 8 (Abstr. 1042-1045) Seed Vigor Testing and Utilization

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Steven C. Adams

91 WORKSHOP 8 (Abstr. 1042-1045) Seed Vigor Testing and Utilization