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Charlotte M. Guimond, Gregory A. Lang and Preston K. Andrews

To examine the effect of timing and severity of summer pruning on flower bud initiation and vegetative growth, 4-year-old `Bing' cherry trees (Prunus avium L.) were pruned at 31, 34, 37, 38, or 45 days after full bloom (DAFB) with heading cuts 20 cm from the base of current-season lateral shoot growth, or at 38 DAFB by heading current-season lateral shoot growth at 15, 20, 25, or 30 cm from the base of the shoot. The influence of heading cut position between nodes also was examined by cutting at a point (≈20 cm from the shoot base) just above or below a node, or in the middle of an internode. Summer pruning influenced the number of both flower buds and lateral shoots subsequently formed on the shoots. All of the timings and pruning lengths significantly increased the number of both flower buds and lateral shoots, but differences between pruning times were not significant. There was significantly less regrowth when shoots were pruned just below a node or in the center of an internode, rather than just above a node, suggesting that the length of the remaining stub may inhibit regrowth somewhat. The coefficient of determination (r 2) between flower bud number and regrowth ranged from -0.34 to -0.45. In young high-density sweet cherry plantings, summer pruning may be useful for increasing flower bud formation on current-season shoots. The time of pruning, length of the shoots after pruning, and location of the pruning cut can influence subsequent flower bud formation and vegetative regrowth.

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Gennaro Fazio, Yizhen Wan, Dariusz Kviklys, Leticia Romero, Richard Adams, David Strickland and Terence Robinson

NZraAM18-700 has not been revealed. Segregation of Dw1 could not explain the continuous variation for vigor control observed in the M.9 × R5 population to study dwarfing ( Pilcher et al., 2008 ). Several apple rootstock maps have been produced

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Jacques R. Fouché, Stephanie C. Roberts, Stephanie J.E. Midgley and Willem J. Steyn

. The increased shading together with increased vigor of shaded trees may increase the proportion pale green fruit. However, rigorous pruning, vigor control, and the use of dwarfing rootstocks to ensure an open canopy for maximum light distribution could

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Ismail A. Hussein and Donald C. Slack

The effect of three vigor-control apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) rootstock (seedling, MM.106, and M.7a) on fruit diameter of three cultivars ('Red Delicious', `Granny Smith', and `Gala') was studied over two growing seasons (1990-91) in the arid climate of Willcox, Ariz. Daily fruit growth rate (DFGR) and effective fruit growth period (EFGP) data indicate cultivar differences in DFGR as well as EFGP. Cultivars with a high DFGR had a relatively shorter EFGP. Rootstock had no significant effect on EFGP. Cultivar x rootstock interaction on fruit diameter was significant for DFGR, but not for EFGP. `Red Delicious' and `Granny Smith' trees produced larger fruits on MM.106 and M.7a than on seedling rootstock. For `Gala', there was no significant effect of all rootstock on fruit diameter.

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Gregory A. Lang

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium) can be one of the most profitable tree fruit cultivated in temperate climates. While cherry trees grow naturally to relatively tall heights, new size-controlling cherry rootstocks similar to those used in high-density apple orchards are now a reality. The Gisela series from Germany, the Gran Manier series from Belgium, the Weiroot series, the P-HL series, Tabel Edabriz, and others of international origin are at various stages of scientific and field testing in North America, with some now moving into commercial fruit production. These stocks confer several highly advantageous traits besides vigor control, including precocious fruiting and high productivity. While these obvious traits are exciting, serious problems have also been documented, on occassion, with such phenomena as small fruit size and tree decline. As many of these rootstocks are interspecific Prunus hybrids, might there be significant limitations for fruit quality and orchard longevity? What is known about their susceptibilities to pathogens and pests? What is known about their tolerance to various soil types and/or climatological stresses? Further, with the U.S. and worldwide orchard area planted to fresh-market sweet cherries already expanding to record levels throughout the 1990s and a time-honored agricultural trend toward overproduction until grower profits are minimized (see recent international apple markets), what might be the future impact of such precocious, productive rootstocks on sweet cherry profitability and sustainable production? This overview will address these topics, providing some answers and some areas for future scientific investigation and discussion.

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Gregory A. Lang

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) can be one of the most profitable tree fruits cultivated in temperate climates. While cherry trees grow naturally to relatively tall heights (≈35 ft [≥10 m]), new size-controlling cherry rootstocks similar to those used in high-density apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards are now a reality. The Gisela (GI.) and Weiroot (W.) series from Germany, the Gran Manier (GM.) series from Belgium, the P-HL series from Czech Republic, `Tabel Edabriz' from France, and others of international origin are at various stages of scientific and field testing in North America, with some now being used for commercial fruit production. These stocks confer several advantageous traits besides vigor control, including precocious fruiting and high productivity. While these beneficial traits are exciting, serious problems also have been documented on occasion, such as small fruit size and tree decline. As many of these rootstocks are interspecific Prunus L. hybrids, might there be significant limitations for fruit quality and orchard longevity? What is known about their tolerance to various soil types and/or climatological stresses? What is known about their susceptibilities to pathogens and pests? Further, with the U.S. and worldwide orchard area planted to fresh-market sweet cherries already expanding to record levels throughout the 1990s and a time-honored agricultural tendency toward overproduction until grower profits are minimized (e.g., recent international apple markets), what might be the future impact of such precocious, productive rootstocks on sweet cherry profitability and sustainable production? This overview addresses these topics, providing some answers and some areas for future scientific investigation and industry discussion.

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Thomas G. Beckman, Philip A. Rollins, James Pitts, Dario J. Chavez and Jose X. Chaparro

a typical peach seedling stock and not the vigor control that ‘Sharpe’ typically exhibits. These atypically high vigor trees on ‘Sharpe’ invariably proved to be scion rooted. 2009 Landrum, SC—ARR/PTSL Trial. Losses in this trial developed much more

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Thomas G. Beckman, Jose X. Chaparro and Wayne B. Sherman

typically smooth. Tests of graft compatibility of ‘MP-29’ with other Prunus species have been initiated. Overall, ‘MP-29’ appears to offer a unique combination of broad disease resistance, productivity, and vigor control not found in any other currently

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Elizabeth E. Rogers and Craig A. Ledbetter

and released as clonal rootstocks for stone fruit and almonds with scion vigor-controlling abilities ( Bliss et al., 2011 , 2012a , 2012b , 2013 ). ‘Harrow Blood’ also was hybridized with an undomesticated almond [ Prunus webbii (Spach) Vierhapper

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Burcu Begüm Kenanoglu, Ibrahim Demir and Henk Jalink

, seedling emergence percentages, and seed vigor (controlled deterioration) of differently matured pepper seed lots through eliminating less mature seeds. Materials and Methods Pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) plants of the cultivars Demre Sivrisi, Çarliston, 11