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Tatsiana Espevig, Chenping Xu, Trygve S. Aamlid, Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang

Norway from 2003 to 2006, velvet bentgrass was found to exhibit better winter survival and turf quality characteristics compared with creeping bentgrass ( Aamlid et al., 2006 ; Molteberg et al., 2008 ). Based on appropriate cultivar selection, there is

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John Watson, François Hébert, Eric M. Lyons, Theo Blom and Katerina S. Jordan

; Cousineau, 2002 ; Gerretsen, 2008 ) and, more recently, with the restriction of fertilizer use in turf ( Throssel et al., 2009 ), it is necessary to seek new approaches to achieve high-quality turfgrass systems. Lower input species such as velvet bentgrass

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Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang

Efficient carbon distribution and utilization may enhance drought survival and recovery ability for perennial grasses. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in carbon partitioning and carbohydrate accumulation patterns in shoots and roots of colonial bentgrass (Agrostis capillaris L.), creeping bentgrass (A. stolonifera L.), and velvet bentgrass (A. canina L.) in response to drought and re-watering following drought, and to determine whether species variation in drought tolerance and recuperative potential is related to differences in the patterns of carbon partitioning and accumulation. The experiment consisted of three treatments: 1) well-watered control; 2) drought, irrigation completely withheld for 18 days; and 3) drought recovery, a group of drought-stressed plants were re-watered at the end of the drought treatment (18 days). Drought tolerance and recuperative ability of three species was evaluated by measuring turf quality and leaf relative water content. These parameters indicated that velvet bentgrass was most drought tolerant while colonial bentgrass had highest recuperative ability among the three species. Plants were labeled with 14CO2 to determine carbon partitioning to shoots and roots. Carbohydrate accumulation was assessed by total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) content. The proportion of newly photosynthesized 14C partitioned to roots increased at 12 days of drought compared to the pre-stress level, to a greater extent for velvet bentgrass (45%) than for colonial bentgrass (35%) and creeping bentgrass (30%). In general, the proportion of 14C was highest in roots, intermediate in stems, and lowest in leaves at 12 days of drought treatment for all three bentgrass species. As drought duration and severity increased (18 days), 14C partitioning increased more in leaves and stems relative to that in roots for all three species. Stem TNC content was significantly greater for drought-stressed plants of colonial bentgrass and velvet bentgrass compared to their respective well-watered control plants, whereas no differences in stem TNC content were observed between drought-stressed and well-watered creeping bentgrass. Our results suggest that increased carbon partitioning to roots during initial drought stress represented an adaptive response of bentgrass species to short-term drought stress, and increased carbon partitioning and carbohydrate accumulation in stems during prolonged period of drought stress could be beneficial for rapid recovery of turf growth and water status upon re-watering.

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Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang

Osmotic adjustment (OA) is a major physiological mechanism associated with maintenance of cell turgor in response to dehydration stress. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in capacity for OA in relation to plant tolerance to drought stress for two cool-season turfgrass species, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) and velvet bentgrass (A. canina L.), and to determine major solutes contributing to OA in these grass species. Plants of `L-93' creeping bentgrass and `Greenwich' velvet bentgrass were grown in a growth chamber in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes (5 cm diameter, 40 cm high) filled with a 1:3 (v/v) sterilized mixture of sand and sandy loam soil. The experiment consisted of two soil moisture treatments: 1) well-watered control, irrigated three times per week to maintain soil moisture near pot capacity; and 2) drought stress, irrigation completely withheld. Velvet bentgrass exhibited higher drought tolerance compared to creeping bentgrass, as manifested by higher visual turfgrass quality (TQ) and leaf relative water content (RWC) under drought stress. Both creeping bentgrass and velvet bentgrass exhibited OA in response to drought stress; however, velvet bentgrass exhibited 50% to 60% higher magnitude of OA, which could be related to the maintenance of higher leaf RWC and TQ for greater drought duration compared to creeping bentgrass. OA for both creeping bentgrass and velvet bentgrass was associated with accumulation of water soluble carbohydrates during the early period of drought and increases in proline content following prolonged period of drought; however, inorganic ion content (Ca2+ and K+) did not considerably change under drought stress and did not seem to contribute to OA in these species.

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Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang

found that velvet bentgrass is more tolerant to drought stress than creeping bentgrass or colonial bentgrass as exhibited by higher turfgrass quality, leaf water content, and osmotic adjustment under drought stress ( DaCosta and Huang, 2006a , 2006b

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Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang

accumulation under drought stress and recovery from drought stress. Materials and Methods Plant materials and growth conditions. Sods of ‘Tiger II’ colonial bentgrass, ‘L-93’ creeping bentgrass, and ‘Greenwich’ velvet bentgrass were collected

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Eric Watkins, Andrew B. Hollman and Brian P. Horgan

-input conditions has been evaluated for creeping and velvet bentgrass ( Samaranayake et al., 2008 ) and kentucky bluegrass ( Shortell et al., 2004 ). Fine fescue species have been evaluated for wear tolerance at low mowing heights in the United Kingdom ( Newell and

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Gerald M. Henry and Stephen E. Hart

The tolerance of velvet bentgrass (Agrostis canina L.) to the herbicide fenoxaprop is not known. In greenhouse experiments velvet bentgrass cultivars SR7200 and Vesper had a much greater degree of tolerance to fenoxaprop at rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.30 kg·ha-1 relative to L-93 creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). SR7200 and Vesper were tolerant to fenoxaprop at 0.15 kg·ha-1 or lower and growth reductions did not exceed 10% at the highest fenoxaprop rate of 0.30 kg·ha-1. In contrast, growth reduction of L-93 creeping bentgrass was evident at the lowest application of fenoxaprop at 0.01 kg·ha-1 and increased as fenoxaprop rates increased, reaching as high 58% at 0.30 kg·ha-1. Field experiments were conducted in 2002 and 2003 to compare the tolerance of established SR7200 velvet bentgrass and Penn A-4 creeping bentgrass maintained at 3.2 mm to three sequential applications at 21 day intervals of fenoxaprop at 0.02, 0.04, and 0.07 kg·ha-1. Turf quality of SR7200 was equal to the untreated following all fenoxaprop applications except the third sequential application at 0.07 kg·ha-1. Penn A-4 turf quality was consistently reduced compared to the untreated following fenoxaprop applications of 0.04 and 0.07 kg·ha-1. Turf density of SR7200 was not affected by three sequential applications of fenoxaprop at 0.02 and 0.04 kg·ha-1 but was reduced by 8% at 0.07 kg·ha-1. Penn A-4 turf density was reduced by 10 and 33% following three sequential applications of fenoxaprop at 0.04 and 0.07 kg·ha-1, respectively. Results from these studies showed that the velvet bentgrass cultivars were more tolerant to fenoxaprop, compared to the creeping bentgrass cultivars evaluated. Chemical names used: (+)-ethyl2-[4-[(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyl)oxy]p henoxy] propanoate (fenoxaprop). 3,5-pyridinedicarbothioic acid, 2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)-S,S-dimethylester (dithiopyr).

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Gerald M. Henry, Stephen E. Hart and James A. Murphy

Field trials were conducted in 2000 and 2001 to determine the potential of converting pure stands of annual bluegrass [Poa annua L. spp. reptans (Hauskins) Timm.], maintained at a 3.2-mm height, to bentgrass (Agrostis spp.). Parameters evaluated included three overseeding dates and four cultivars from two bentgrass species. Overseeding dates were 1 July, 18 Aug., and 18 Sept. 2000 and 27 June, 17 Aug., and 17 Sept. 2001. Three creeping bentgrass (A. stolonifera L.) cultivars (`Penncross', `L-93', and `Penn A-4') and one velvet bentgrass (A. canina L.) cultivar (`SR7200') were evaluated. Initial bentgrass establishment was evident across all seeding dates and cultivars in October of the year of overseeding. However, the 1 July 2000 and 27 June 2001 overseeding dates had the highest levels of bentgrass coverage 12 months after overseeding across all cultivars except `Penncross'. Coverage of `Penn A-4' and `L-93' increased to 72% in the 1 July 2000 overseeding date, 24 months after the initial overseeding. When overseeded in early summer, velvet bentgrass `SR7200' showed the greatest potential for establishment with annual bluegrass. `SR7200' and creeping bentgrass cultivars `Penn A-4' and `L-93' exhibited the greatest potential for long-term competitiveness with annual bluegrass, while `Penncross' exhibited the lowest potential.

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Kenneth B. Marcum

Relative salinity tolerance of 33 creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds), one colonial bentgrass (A. capillaris L.), and one velvet bentgrass (A. canina L.) cultivars were determined via hydroponics in a controlled-environment greenhouse. After gradual acclimation, grasses were exposed to moderate salinity stress (8 dS·m-1) for 10 weeks to determine tolerance to chronic salinity stress. Relative dry weight of leaf clippings (RLW), percentage of green leaf area (GL), root dry weight (RW), and root length (RL) were all effective parameters for predicting salinity tolerance. Following 10 weeks of salinity stress, RLW was correlated with GL (r = 0.72), with RW (r = 0.71), and with RL (r = 0.66). The range of salinity tolerance among cultivars was substantial. `Mariner', `Grand Prix', `Seaside', and `Seaside II' were salt-tolerant, `L-93', `Penn G-2', `18th Green', and `Syn 96-1' were moderately salt tolerant, and `Avalon', `Ambrosia', `SR1119', `Regent', `Putter', `Penncross', and `Penn G-6' were salt sensitive.