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Keun H. Cho, Veronica Y. Laux, Nathan Wallace-Springer, David G. Clark, Kevin M. Folta, and Thomas A. Colquhoun

Vegetative cutting is an indispensable propagation technique for the mass production of ornamental annuals, perennials, herbs, shrubs, trees, and foliage plants. This method offers substantial advantages of maintaining identical phenotypic traits

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Amy L. Enfield and James E. Faust

Poinsettia `Prestige', New Guinea impatiens `Sonic White', and petunia `Improved Charlie' cuttings were harvested from stock plants, weighed, placed in glass jars, and placed at 10, 15, 20, or 25 °C. Carbon dioxide accumulation was measured and used to determine respiration rates at 2, 6, 10, 24, and 48 hours. Vegetative cuttings have very high initial respiration rates that quickly decline over time. At 2 hours, respiration rates at 25 °C were 5.4-, 2.4-, and 4.3-fold higher vs. 10 °C in poinsettia, New Guinea impatiens, and petunia, respectively. By 48 hours, there was little difference in respiration rates. In a second experiment, poinsettia `Prestige' cuttings were pre-cooled at 10 °C for 0, 3, 6, 12, or 24 hours before being transferred to 20 °C. Respiration rates were measured at 0, 2, 6, 10, 24, 48, and 72 hours in the 20 °C environment. Regardless of pre-cooling duration, respiration rates increased when cuttings were transferred from 10 to 20 °C. Respiration rates of cuttings pre-cooled for 3, 6, or 12 hours were not significantly different from cuttings maintained at constant 20 °C. However, after transfer, cuttings pre-cooled for 24 hours had a respiration rate significantly lower than cuttings maintained at constant 20 °C, but by 72 hours, there were no significant differences.

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Kathryn M. Santos, Paul R. Fisher, and William R. Argo

isolated nutrient solutions to the foliar or basal portion of petunia vegetative cuttings simultaneously as shown in Figure 1 . The bottoms of 96 10.8-L plastic tubs (29.2 × 34.3 × 13.3 cm) were removed and the opening was covered with a water

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Sean J. Markovic and James E. Klett

, 2005 ); therefore, it is highly desirable to keep stock plants in a juvenile or vegetative state of development. Because the success of propagating vegetative cuttings will depend on the propagator’s judgment ( Wells, 1971 ), producing stock plants with

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Sean J. Markovic and James E. Klett

This study aimed to assess the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on stock plant production of mojave sage (Salvia pachyphylla) and ‘Avalanche’ cape daisy (Osteospermum hybrid) that received foliar sprays of the following three PGRs: 200 and 400 ppm ethephon; 250 and 500 ppm benzyladenine; and 50 and 100 ppm gibberellic acid 4 and 7 (GA4+7) plus benzyladenine. Vegetative growth [height and width growth index (GI)], the number of vegetative cuttings, and fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) of the harvested vegetative cuttings data were collected. A propagation study was conducted concurrently to determine the effects of the PGR treatments on rooting vegetative cuttings. GA4+7 plus benzyladenine (50 and 100 ppm) increased the production of both mojave sage and ‘Avalanche’ cape daisy cuttings by ≥18% more than the other treatments. The GI, FW, and DW results showed similar trends across experiments 1 and 2 for each perennial. In the propagation study, the rooting percentage did not differ after 4 weeks, indicating that the use of GA4+7 plus benzyladenine in production protocols could benefit producers of both perennials.

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Jonathan R. Schultheis, Daniel J. Cantliffe, and Herbert H. Bryan

Early plant growth, root quality, and yield from sweetpotato plants obtained from zygotic seed, somatic embryos, or cloned from stock plants (through micropropagation, rooted node explants, or nonrooted terminal vine cuttings) were compared in field plantings established in 1986, 1987, and 1988 in Gainesville and/or Homestead, Fla. At planting, transplants derived from somatic embryos had more nodes than the other propagules, while vine length per plant was greatest with nonrooted vine cuttings obtained from stock plants. The number of nodes (up to 253%) and vine growth (up to 517%) were greater when plants were derived from stock plants and zygotic embryos than from somatic embryos 4 weeks (1987) and 6 weeks (1988) after planting. Vegetative growth, larger-sized storage roots (>6 cm in diameter), and total yields (all root grades combined) were consistently reduced when plants were derived from somatic embryos compared with propagules of stock plant origin. Plants obtained from somatic embryos required more time for roots to bulk or size than the other propagule types. Root yield from plantlets derived from somatic embryos showed a 14-fold increase when harvest was delayed at least 53 more days. Root weight, regardless of harvest date, was greater when plants were derived from stock plants rather than from somatic embryos, while in most cases plants derived from somatic embryos yielded a greater number of roots than from stock plants. Plants obtained through somatic embryony and harvested at a later date typically had yields exceed 1.8 kg per plant. Morphology of plants obtained from somatic embryos was uniform and identical to plants derived from stock plants.

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Caroline S. Donnelly and Paul R. Fisher

The objective was to quantify the effect of supplemental lighting on cutting production for 10 herbaceous annual cultivars. Stock plants of four cultivars (Heliotropium arborescens `Atlantis', Petunia `Supertunia Sun Snow', Scaevola aemula `New Wonder', and Verbena `Tapien Soft Pink') received ambient light [average 6.2 mol·m-2·d-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) during the photoperiod], or ambient light plus either 1.6 or 2.8 mol·m-2·d-1 PPF from high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps for 11 hours. In a second experiment, the same four species plus six other cultivars were grown under ambient light (average 7.9 mol·m-2·d-1 PPF) or ambient plus 1.9 mol·m-2·d-1 PPF from HPS. The effect of HPS on the production of cuttings varied greatly between species. Growth of Heliotropium was not significantly affected by light level in either experiment. In the first experiment, the addition of 1.6 mol·m-2·d-1 PPF from HPS increased the number of Petunia `Supertunia Sun Snow', Scaevola, and Verbena cuttings by 14%, 51%, and 12%. The addition of 2.8 mol·m-2·d-1 PPF from HPS, increased cuttings harvested from these three species by 23%, 73%, and 22% respectively. In the second experiment, Petunia `Supertunia Sun Snow', Scaevola, Aloysia triphylla (lemon verbena), and Osteospermum `Lemon Symphony' had a positive cutting production response to HPS (17% to 45% increase), whereas cutting numbers of other species (Argyranthemum `Summer Melody', Lantana `Patriot Firewagon', Impatiens New Guinea hybrid `Pedro', Petunia `Supertunia Blue Wren', and Verbena) were not significantly affected by HPS. In both experiments, cutting quality (length, stem caliper, fresh mass, and dry mass) and subsequent rooting of cuttings were not significantly affected by light level.

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Kathryn M. Santos, Paul R. Fisher, and William R. Argo

involves considerable application of water for control of humidity, soil moisture, and as a means to apply water-soluble fertilizer. In a typical rooting environment for vegetative cuttings, water is initially supplied by either mist emitters or automated

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Sean J. Markovic, Shana G. Brown, and James E. Klett

vegetative cuttings. Stock plants grown in containers become more productive as the plants mature until plant growth declines, resulting from limited root space or shoot crowding. The duration of increased productivity can also be influenced by management

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Shana G. Brown and James E. Klett

propagated by vegetative cuttings. Stock plants of this variety are often grown in containers for 1 to 2 years in greenhouses. Initially, container-grown stock plants produce more cuttings as the plants mature until they reach a plateau often due to limited