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Yansheng Li, Ming Du, Qiuying Zhang, Guanghua Wang, Jian Jin, Stephen Herbert and Xiaobing Liu

-June on soybean protein content. All these studies mentioned were focused on the yield and quality of grain soybean. There is less information available for the effect of planting date on fresh pod yield, particularly for seed quality of vegetable soybean

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Lingxiao Zhang and S Kyei-Boahen

Vegetable soybean, also called edamame, is becoming increasingly popular in the U.S. as a result of the high nutritional value and health benefits. These soybeans are harvested when the pods are fully filled and still green. Fresh or frozen

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Yumei Zhang, Runfang Hu, Huawei Li, Haisheng Zhu, Jinming Zhao, Na Guo, Han Xing and Guoqiang Lin

Vegetable soybean, called “Edamame” in Japan or “Mao Dou” in China, is one of the oldest cultivated vegetables and an excellent source of proteins, carbohydrates, dietary fibers, vitamins, minerals, and phytoestrogens ( Kim et al., 2014 ). Therefore

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Reuben B. Beverly, Allen W. Byous and Tommy Nakayama

Vegetable soybean (Glycine max L.) represents a potential high-value specialty crop for small farmers in the southern Piedmont region of the United States; practical and affordable mechanical harvest technology will facilitate production. A trial planting of vegetable soybean was used to test the ability of a commercial one-row harvester used currently for snap bean and lima bean production systems to harvest soybean. The upright growth habit and excessive herbage of vegetable soybean necessitated harvest in two passes over the row, which produced in-pod yield of 7050 lb/acre (7900 kg ha-1). Adaptation of this technology has the potential to facilitate development of a vegetable soybean production industry.

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G. Ghale, V.T. Sapra, C.A. Beyl and C.B. Chawan

Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merril is an annual self-pollinated diploid legume (sub-family Fabaceae). In the 1990s, soybean production in the far east, as in ancient times, was primarily for food consumption. Today, vegetable soybean is the dominant soyfood in Asia and is gaining popularity in the United States because of its versatility and nutrient value. Dozens of different forms of food have been developed from it. Tofu is one of the most important of these. Twenty four cultivars of vegetable soybean from two regional tofu tests (Alabama A&M and Virginia State Univ.) and 10 cultivars from the Alabama A&M Univ. soybean breeding project were evaluated for the physical and chemical characteristic of the resultant tofu. Data on protein, tofu yield, moisture content, tofu texture, and structure were recorded. Shear-force (used to evaluate texture) was determined with a Kramer Shear cell and micro-structure was examined using a scanning electron microscope. Seed protein content ranged from 30 to 54%. Tofu yield ranged from 41.9 to 83.0 g and texture of tofu ranged from 10 to 62.3 lb.

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Herbert Thompson, J.M. Joshi, R.B. Dadson and M. Nobaht

Vegetable Soybean Cultivars belonging to MG III thru V were evaluated for their Seed Yield Efficiency (SYE) and Resistance to Heliothis Zea.

This study was conducted in 1968 and 1969. Each entry was planted in a single row plot. Each plot was 5.0 m long and 0.75 m apart in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications.. All entries were evaluated for Seed Yield Efficiency by computing the ratio of seed dry matter wt. to non-seed dry matter wt. and their resistance as the percentage of damage pods.

Preliminary data indicated that cultivars kim and Oakland (MG III), Kingston and Jefferson (MG IV), Pershing and PI 416.467 (MG V) were very high in SYE while Fuji (MG III), Sanga (MG IV) and PI 417.266 (MG V) were observed to have high level of resistance to Heliothis Zea.

We hope that these cultivars could be used as parents for the development of Breeding Program in Vegetable Soybean.

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M.S.S. Rao, Ajmer S. Bhagsari and Ali I. Mohamed

In Asian countries and among the oriental populations in the United States, vegetable soybeans are consumed much the same way as green peas are consumed. A need exists for developing soybean cultivars adapted to the U.S. environments to take advantage of the economic potential of vegetable soybeans for both domestic and international markets. During 1997, 12 vegetable soybean genotypes of exotic origin and two local U.S. soybean cultivars were evaluated for their agronomic performance in a randomized complete block, with four replications, at the Agric. Res. Stn. FVSU, Ga. At the R6 stage (when the seeds are of full size and still immature), plants from a half-meter-row length were sampled from each plot to estimate green pod and seed yield, and determine the nutritional quality of green beans. Significant differences were observed among genotypes for the agronomic and biochemical parameters studied. The green seed yield ranged from 7.1 (cv. Ware) to 14.0 Mg·ha–1 (cv. Tanbagura). Three cultivars, Tomahamare, Mian Yan, and Tousan-122, produced green seed yields in excess of 12 Mg·ha–1. The number of green pods varied between 1518 (Tanbagura) and 3526/m2 (cv. Hutcheson). The green bean oil and protein contents, ranged from 53.1 to 105.4 and from 354.2 and 418.3 g·kg–1, respectively. Thus, the green seeds contained only 30% of oil, but 50% to 80% of protein normally found in mature soybean seed. The glucose content was between 4.1% and 7.0%, while the phytate content varied between 0.93% and 1.3%. T he green seed yield was significantly correlated with number of green pods, number of green seeds, and green pod weight. This study showed that some exotic vegetable soybean genotypes may be suitable for production in the southeastern U.S.

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Lisa M. Duppong and Harlene Hatterman-Valenti

Vegetable soybeans (Glycine max), the same species as field-dried soybeans, have similar production requirements and good market potential for commercial producers in upper midwestern United States. Five vegetable soybean cultivars were tested for yield and quality characteristics and to assess the necessity of field irrigation during 2003 and 2004 in North Dakota. Cultivars of different maturity dates were evaluated for stand densities, pod production, seed weight, and marketable yield. Total marketable yields varied between the years, ranging from 5773 to 10,118 lb/acre. Lower yields in 2003 were attributed to significantly lower population stands caused by poor germination conditions. `Envy', the earliest maturing cultivar, produced a significantly smaller seed size, while `Sayamusume' produced a greater seed size than the other cultivars both years. `Butterbean', `IA1010', and `IA2062' yielded greater percentages of three-bean pods than the other two cultivars each growing season. Irrigation did not increase the marketable pod yield or the quality variables examined each season; thus it appears that rainfall during the growing season may be adequate for vegetable soybean production in this region.

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P. DeCarli, F. Rivera, W. Brown and Mark Gaskell

Coastal California vegetable growers produce a wide range of specialty crops for diverse domestic and export markets. Vegetable-type soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivars are grown and consumed fresh in many parts of the world, but particularly in Japan and Asia, where they are known as edamame. Traditional soybean maturity group classification may not be applicable for fresh-market edamame, particularly in mild coastal California growing conditions. We evaluated a total of 55 vegetable soybean cultivars during the 1998 growing season from maturity groups ranging from group 00 to group VI. Replicated field plots were planted on 30-31 May 1998 in San Luis Obispo, Calif. (lat. 35.12°N.). Cultivars from maturity Groups 00 and I began producing on 4 Sept., followed in 7 to 10 days by maturity Group II and III, and by harvest of maturity Group III and IV cultivars on 19 Sept. Harvest of Group IV cultivars continued until 24 Oct. Percent marketable (two- and three-seeded) pods ranged from 86% to 17% among the cultivars. Marketable yields ranged more than 15-fold, with cultivars such as `Sapporo Midori', a group 00 cultivar popular in Japan, producing 348 g/plant, to cultivars such as `Early Hakucho' and `Envy' producing 20 and 5 g plant, respectively.

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Debra Carpenter, Vince Pantalone, Fred Allen, Dennis Deyton, Carl Sams and Allison Stewart

There are three objectives for this study: to determine the within-row plant spacing and time of planting that will produce optimal yields and seed isoflavone content, to explore the feasibility of incorporating edamame soybeans in a double-cropping system with strawberries, and to study the potential as an edamame soybean of newly identified line TN03-349. TN03-349 was planted into black plastic, irrigated strawberry beds in an East Tennessee location at five different within-row spacings (7.62, 15.24, 30.48, 60.96, and 121.92 cm) in 2004 and 2005. Another strawberry bed planting was located in Middle Tennessee in 2005. Four soybean lines and two planting dates were used in the Middle Tennessee experiment. Two lines are high yielding soybean checks, while the third is a commercially available edamame cultivar. The fourth line is TN03-349. Planting dates were 24 May and 14 June 2005. A final field experiment utilized the same four soybean lines and planting dates with an additional planting on 6 July 2005. Four different within-row spacings were used, as well. All experimental plantings were harvested at both the R6 (green) and R8 (dry) stages. Preliminary data indicates that isoflavone content was not affected by within-row spacing in the 2004 East Tennessee strawberry bed experiment. Yield data from the same experiment seems to indicate that soybeans were able to compensate for fewer plants per row at the 7, 62, 15.24, and 30.48 cm spacings. Yield dropped sharply at the 60.96 and 121.92 cm treatments. Line TN03-349 produced beans with large seed size and nutty flavor, traits that are essential for edamame soybeans.