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James B. Magee

Many concepts of the nutritional value of fruit and vegetables generally accepted in the past, in the light of more knowledge, today are considered “misconceptions.” For example, the tomato, once considered poisonous, then shown edible, later proved to be a “good” food and a valuable source of minerals and vitamin C, today shows the potential for significant anti-cancer activity. Results of a 6-year study of the dietary habits of 47,000 men reported up to a 45% reduction in the incidence of prostate cancer of those who ate 10 or more servings per week of tomato-based products. Other misconceptions to be discussed include nightshade vegetables and arthritis, apples after meals to clean the teeth and gums, and “if a little is good for you, a lot must be better.” Today's nutritional ideas about many fruits and vegetables may become tomorrow's misconceptions as our knowledge of the composition (e.g., phytochemicals) of fruits and vegetables increases. Examples of this are include the use of muscadine pomace and the nutritive value of strawberries.

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Suzanne A. O'Brien and Candice A. Shoemaker

An eight-lesson gardening and nutrition curriculum with a hands-on gardening emphasis was taught as an after-school program to determine the effect it had on increasing children's nutrition knowledge, fruit and vegetable (F&V) preference, and improving children's self-efficacy (SE) and outcome expectations (OE) for gardening and for consuming fruit and vegetables. Seventeen fourth-grade students participated in the experimental group as part of an after-school gardening club, and 21 fourth-grade students served as the control group. Nutrition knowledge; F&V preference; SE; OE; as well as demographic measures were obtained at baseline and end-program. There were no differences in nutrition knowledge scores between or within groups at baseline or at end-program. However, baseline scores were high (>7 out of 10 possible) for both groups. Both groups indicated a high preference for fruit at baseline and end-program. Vegetable preference did not increase over the course of the program for either group. At baseline, measurements of gardening SE and OE were significantly different between the groups, and during the length of the study the control group significantly increased in their gardening SE and OE while the experimental group maintained their high SE and OE for gardening. Some possible explanations for these unexpected findings could be recruitment effect and seasonal change. Further research to clarify which aspects of gardening (i.e., season, harvesting, crops grown) have the greatest impact on influencing preference, SE and OE of fourth-grade children is needed.

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E.A. Guertal and J.H. Edwards

Fall and spring collards (Brassica oleracea L. Acephala Group) were grown under one of three mulches (black plastic, ground newspaper, wood chips) and in a bare soil control. Mulch treatments were arranged in a factorial design with five rates of N fertilizer: 0, 67, 134, 201, or 268 kg N/ha. All fertilizer was preplant-incorporated into the bed before applying mulches and transplanting collards. Season did not affect collard yield, and there was no significant season × N rate interaction. Collard yields increased with increasing rates of N, with a maximum yield at 163 kg N/ha. Mulch type significantly affected collard yield, with fall collard yields highest under bare ground or wood chip mulches and spring yields highest under black plastic mulch. Collards produced under newspaper mulch produced the lowest yields in the fall and yields equal to bare soil and wood chips in the spring. Collards produced under newspaper mulch had less tissue N at harvest than those of any of the other treatments in both seasons. Collards produced on black plastic produced the lowest plant populations in both seasons. Wood chips and newspaper offer some appeal as low-input, small-scale mulches, but additional research to explore fertility management is necessary.

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James M. Dangler and C. Wesley Wood

Collards (Brassica oleracea L. Acephala Group) were grown in spring and fall to evaluate the effects of N fertilizer rate (0, 56, 112, 168, and 224 kg·ha -1), cultivar (Blue Max and Vates), and within-row spacing (15, 23, and 30 cm) on yield and leaf mineral nutrient concentrations. Season, cultivar, and N rate interacted in their effects on yield. In spring, `Blue Max' yield increased linearly with N rate to 10.4 t·ha-1, whereas the highest `Vates' yield (7.0 t·ha-1) was obtained with 112 kg N/ha, and yield remained similar with additional N. In fall, `Blue Max' and `Vates' yields were highest (14.5 and 9.9 t·ha -1, respectively) with 112 kg N/ha. Leaf N and P concentrations increased quadratically and linearly, respectively, in response to N rate. Maximum yields were obtained with the 15-cm within-row spacing. Leaf N concentration increased linearly with increased plant population. The adequacy of the present sufficiency range for leaf Ca concentrations of field-grown collards is discussed.

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George H. Clough

53 ORAL SESSION 16 (Abstr. 109-115) Vegetables: Nutrition

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S. J. Locascio and G. J. Hochmuth

53 ORAL SESSION 16 (Abstr. 109-115) Vegetables: Nutrition

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K.M. Batal

53 ORAL SESSION 16 (Abstr. 109-115) Vegetables: Nutrition

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J. R. Heckman, D. J. Prostak, and W. T. Hlubik

53 ORAL SESSION 16 (Abstr. 109-115) Vegetables: Nutrition

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T. K. Hartz

53 ORAL SESSION 16 (Abstr. 109-115) Vegetables: Nutrition

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Mary Lamberts, Stephen K. O'Hair, George Hochmuth, and Edward Hanlon

53 ORAL SESSION 16 (Abstr. 109-115) Vegetables: Nutrition