Central Asia is the center of origin for many Allium species and a rich genetic source of wild relatives of onion and garlic. For this reason germplasm collections of cultivated Alliums have targeted the acquisition of seed and bulb samples from this region, and several plant expeditions from Asia, Europe, and North America have collected Allium germplasm in Central Asia. Central Asian Allium germplasm has been valuable both as raw materials for scientific research leading to published data, and as starting materials for genetic improvement of the crop. Utilizing this germplasm it has been possible to improve garlic so it can be bred like other seed-propagated crops. Several interspecific crosses have been made between onion and other Central Asian wild relatives and these crosses have yielded useful traits for onion improvement. Allium germplasm from this region has also been important in elucidating the systematics and origins of diversity in onion and garlic. By any of these measures, Central Asian Allium collections have been valuable. Challenges and successes in collecting, maintaining, evaluating, and using these collections remain.
Philipp W. Simon
Carlos A. Lazcano, L.M. Pike, and K.S. Yoo
A new designer carrot, `BetaSweet', with high levels of anthocyanin, betacarotene, and crispy texture was developed by the Vegetable Improvement Center at Texas A&M Univ. The new carrot contained low levels of low-volatile terpenoids, responsible for the harsh flavor in carrots and high levels of reducing sugars. Carotenoid content increased with carrot maturity and stabilize at 120 days after sowing for orange and maroon genotypes; however, the maroon genotype was 35% higher than the orange cultivar. Anthocyanin, a cancer preventive compound and not detected in ordinary orange carrots, is present in `BetaSweet' maroon carrot with 89.8 mg·100 g-1 of fresh weight. High percentage of soluble solids and succulence in the maroon cultivar seemed to contribute to the favored sweetness perception by consumers. A consumer taste panel showed a significant difference between orange and maroon genotype for sweetness, texture, and overall carrot flavor.
Juan Pablo Arce-Ochoa, Frank Dainello, Leonard M. Pike, and David Drews
1 Graduate Student. 2 Extension Vegetable Specialist. 3 Director, Vegetable Improvement Center. 4 Technical Services Regional Manager, Texas and Mexico. Use of trade names does not imply endorsement of the products named nor criticism of similar
Josefina Alcalá, Leonard M. Pike, and James J. Giovannoni
, Calif.) is acknowledged for providing genotypes 1630 A and TEG 951 C. J. Alcalá was funded through an assistantship from the Vegetable Improvement Center. Use of trade names does not imply endorsement of the products named nor criticism of similar ones
Prem Nath and Sundari Velu
In a world that produces enough food for everyone, about 800 million people in the developing world do not have enough to eat. The important challenge facing agriculture in the new millennium is to eliminate chronic hunger. Safe and better quality food is equally important to ensure that people not only have sufficient energy but also the nutrients necessary for adequate productive lives. In order to release the pressure on cereals as well as to improve human nutrition through consumption of the other nutritious crops, diversification in cropping patterns provides better options, and horticultural crops, including vegetables with their wide adoption and providers of important nutrients, offer promise for the future. In this spirit and in the wake of the present global call for eliminating food and nutritional insecurity, the technologists, entrepreneurs, policy-makers and those interested in agriculture were invited to participate and contribute to fruitful discussion at the International Conference on Vegetables (ICV–2002), which was held 11–14 Nov. 2002 in Bangalore, India. About 700 participants from 37 countries across the globe participated in the conference, and a total of 621 papers were presented. The ICV–2002 addressed 13 theme areas, which included vegetable improvement in production, protection, underutilized vegetables, postharvest management, developmental policies and programs, marketing and trade including WTO policies and programs, and, finally, technical cooperation among developing countries. The salient recommendations of the ICV–2002 will be presented.
Jeffrey T. Baker, Marvin L. Baker, D. Ron Earhart, Leonard M. Pike, Kil S. Yoo, and Roger Horns
Eight individual potatoes, exhibiting a wide range of quality characteristics, were cloned at the Texas A&M Vegetable Improvement Center, College Station, Tex., in order to produce a large number of slips for field trials. Leaf photosynthetic light response for six of these clonal selections was determined during a greenhouse experiment conducted at the Texas A&M Univ. Agricultural Research and Extension Center at Overton, Tex. Photosynthesis data were fit to a rectangular hyperbola in order to estimate light saturated leaf photosynthetic rate (Amax), quantum efficiency (QE), and dark respiration rate (Rd). Significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) were detected in all three of these parameter estimates among the six clonal selections. Parameter estimates ranged from 23.4 to 28.8 μmol (CO2) m-2·s-1, 0.056 to 0.071 mol (CO2)/mol (photons), and –0.9 to –2.0 μmol (CO2) m-2·s-1 for Amax, QE, and Rd, respectively. However, these differences were not clearly related to quality characteristics determined for these clones in field trials.
Rachel L. Hultengren, Lindsay Wyatt, and Michael Mazourek
with powdery mildew resistance as a major priority. This was a goal of the Northern Organic Vegetable Improvement Collaborative (NOVIC), a project to evaluate and develop regionally appropriate seed for organic vegetable growers ( eOrganic, 2016 ), and
Wei-Ling Chen, Cheng-Hung Hsiao, and Hsueh-Shih Lin
plant. Springer, Berlin Kitamura, S. 1958 Varieties and transitions of radish, p. 1–19. In: I. Nishiyama (ed.). Japanese radish. Jpn. Soc. Promotion Sci., Tokyo Kuo, C.G. 1999 Vegetable improvement for heat-tolerance under tropical conditions JIRCAS Work
George E. Boyhan, Suzanne O’Connell, Ryan McNeill, and Suzanne Stone
variety trials are the first step in developing new varieties that address specific organic grower needs. For example, the Northern Organic Vegetable Improvement Collaborative aims to evaluate existing varieties and develop new varieties with farmer
George E. Boyhan, Suzzanne Tate, Ryan McNeill, and Jeffrey McConnaughey
resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, and quality. There have been some collaborative efforts in breeding for organic production. An example is the Northern Organic Vegetable Improvement Collaborative that includes four universities, the USDA, and the Organic