A partial cDNA (cvzbp-1) was cloned based on the N-terminal sequence of a citrus (Citrus L.) vascular Zn-binding protein (CVZBP) previously isolated from vascular tissue (Taylor et al., 2002). CVZBP has homology to the Kunitz soybean proteinase inhibitor (KSPI) family. Recombinant protein produced using the cDNA clone inhibited the cysteine proteinase, papain. Metal binding capacity has not been reported for any other member of this family. CVZBP was present in leaves, stems, and roots but not seeds of all citrus species examined. However, CVZBP was present in germinating seeds after the cotyledons had turned green. Within four hrs after wounding, CVZBP was undetectable in the wounded leaf and adjacent leaves. It has been suggested that many members of the KSPI family serve a function in defense. However, the expression of the CVZBP is in direct contrast with those of KSPI members that were implicated in defense response. Though systemically regulated during wounding, we suggest that CVZBP is not a defense protein but rather may function in vascular development.
Danielle R. Ellis and Kathryn C. Taylor
Simon A. Mng’omba and Elsa S. du Toit
, avocado, and peach plants at the end of the study. For each tree species, rootstocks and scions were matched at grafting to ensure proper alignment of vascular tissues (cambium) for improved graft-take ( Hartmann et al., 1997 ). Grafting was completed
Thomas E. Marler, Anders Lindström and Jack B. Fisher
stems have concentric cylinders of vascular tissue that contain soft, parenchymatous xylem tissue and little lignified tissue with each new additional cylinder differentiating at the base of the stem between the cortex and the youngest pre
Shuguang Wang, Yongpeng Ma, Chengbin Wan, Chungyun Hse, Todd F. Shupe, Yujun Wang and Changming Wang
cells around the vascular tissues, but few signals in the pith cells ( Fig. 1B ). The subcellular localization indicated that the IAA signals were mainly detected in the nuclei, cytoplasm, and a few in the cell wall but and few in vacuoles ( Fig. 1C and
Olfa Zarrouk, Pilar S. Testillano, María Carmen Risueño, María Ángeles Moreno and Yolanda Gogorcena
were mainly expressed in cambial and vascular tissues. The major differences found in the histological study at the interface level, related to cambium and vascular organization, are summarized in Table 3 . Because the percentage of similarity of all
Simon A. Mng'omba, Elsa S. du Toit, Festus K. Akinnifesi and Helena M. Venter
stocks with almost similar stem diameter and bark thickness. This improves proximity of vascular tissues of the scions and stocks. In this trial, bark thickness at the union was not measured, but could be a factor contributing to an increase in union
Michele R. Warmund
hypertrophy in response to larval feeding ( Dreger-Juaffret and Shorthouse, 1992 ). A layer of nutritive tissue forms adjacent to the larval chamber and vascular tissue within the gall joins that of the host organ. During the maturation stage, the last larval
Justine E. Vanden Heuvel and Martin C. Goffinet
(arrow) and occluded vascular tissues (arrowhead). ( C ) ‘Early Black’ after 4 weeks of flooding at 21 °C has fungal mat on upper epidermis, possible epidermal erosion (arrow), and possible vascular occlusion (arrowhead). Woody stems and major
Myong-Dong Cho, Hee-Seung Park and Yong-Koo Kim
`Yumyeong' is one of the most popular peach varieties in Korea. This study was conducted to monitor the developments of cells and tissues, and the changes in sugar contents during the whole fruit growth stages. At bloom, there were two rows of vascular tissues, and the number and the position of internal vascular bundles were consistent during the fruit growth; however, the number of vascular tissues increased and the distribution was irregular in the flesh tissues. The tissues between the inner integument and the internal vascular bundles showed different development characteristics from other parenchyma cells, which consisted of small and dense cells containing tannins. Therefore, it was found that the nucleus of peach consisted of inner epidermis and cells in the internal vascular tissues. The outer epidermis consisted of single layer cells at bloom and was changed into one to two layers by horizontal cell division 14 days after full bloom. At 30 days after full bloom, the epidermis consisted of five to six layers by vertical cell division. The cell layers of the outer epidermis gradually decreased to one to two layers at maturity. The observations on the changes in the epidermis confirmed that some of the cells of the hypodermis of peach fruit originated from the cells of outer epidermis. Tylosis was observed from 35 days after full bloom, and the size and number of tylosis increased until full fruit maturity. The sucrose content sharply increased from 50 days to 120 days after full bloom, then decreased slightly. After stone hardening ended, other solids showed a gradual decrease from 80 days after full bloom.
D.A. Smith, J.B. Fitzgerald and G.E. Meyer
Vitalization is a process whereby senescence is retarded and refrigerated storage can be extended. The process involves hyperhydration of plant materials with selected aqueous solution, thereby flooding interstitial spaces and vascular tissues. Microscopic examination revealed increased size of interstitial spaces and expansion and increased roundness to cells. No disruption of tissues was detected. Turgidity was measured with an Instron Universal Testing Machine equipped with a Kramer Shear Cell. Color was measured with a Minolta color difference meter. Leaves were evaluated for color and turgidity changes during storage. Vitalized leaves did not change significantly in color or turgidity during a 10-week storage period. Untreated leaves lost turgidity and yellowed in storage.