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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall and Joshua Knight

., 2009 ; West and Marland, 2003 ). Although labor does not contribute to the GWP of a product, it does contribute significantly to variable costs. The Adverse Effect Wage Rate, as determined by the U.S. Department of Labor (2018) , was used to set the

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall and Joshua Knight

equipment and environmental control, and other activities for production of young foliage plants in 72-count trays were calculated to be 4.225 and 2.276 kg CO 2 e for Systems A and B, respectively ( Tables 1 and 2 ). Total variable costs per tray of these

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall and Joshua Knight

CO 2 e emissions from the use of growth regulators was calculated as 9.45 kg CO 2 e/kg using SimaPro. Although labor does not contribute directly to a product’s GWP, it contributes significantly to product variable costs. Labor requirements for

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall and Joshua Knight

) production system components to determine their contributions to the carbon footprint and variable costs of inputs and processes. Carbon footprint is expressed as the GWP of a product or process reflected in the emissions of greenhouse gases. GWP is

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall and Joshua Knight

the GHG and variable costs of production system components for an evergreen shrub in a no. 3 container on the east coast of the United States. Methods Goal, scope, and functional unit The functional unit for this LCA study was an evergreen shrub, such

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Dewayne L. Ingram and Charles R. Hall

of field-grown A. rubrum ‘October Glory’, but did not include the variable costs of production in that study. Ingram and Hall recently completed a study of PIP production of A. rubrum ‘October Glory’ and calculated variable costs and GWP of a

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall and Joshua Knight

that contribute the most to CF and variable costs. Once these processes are identified and defined, managers know where to invest their time in seeking alternatives that would make the greatest difference in environmental impact and profitability. Table

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Esendugue Greg Fonsah, Gerard Krewer, Kerry Harrison and Danny Stanaland

percentage chances of profit and the base budgeted net revenue were then calculated. Furthermore, all variable costs components such as preplant, pre-emergence weed control, planting, transplanter, land-preparation, pest and disease control, and fixed cost

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall and Joshua Knight

three distinct production systems for B. microphylla var. japonica ‘Green Beauty’ marketable in a no. 3 container on the west coast of the United States in terms of GWP and variable costs. Nursery production systems on the west coast tend to differ

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Charles R. Hall and Dewayne L. Ingram

was considered a temporary structure in terms of its GWP and variable costs for construction and would last 20 years. The metal frame would be constructed of galvanized steel pipe (418 kg) and would require 100 labor hours for construction. Stone (36