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G.R. Duran, P.C. Coggins and J.A. Wilbourn

Nationally, about 97,900 acres of sweetpotatoes (Ipomoea batatas) were planted for 2001 with a yield of 156 cwt. Many of the sweetpotatoes are left in the field as unmarketable culls. A juicing technique used to produce a value-added product from the culls would be valuable to the sweetpotato farmer and the industry as a whole. This process would enable the farmers to turn an unmarketable product into a potentially profitable juice product. The research objective was to determine the usable yields of sweetpotato culls by extracting the juice. This would provide a value-added juice product for sweetpotato farmers. Juice would be easily transported and stored. Sweetpotato culls were collected, washed, and dried. Samples were chopped, weighed and processed with an automatic juice extractor (Juiceman Jr., Mount Prospect, Ill.). The extracted juice and remaining pulp were removed and weighed. Percent juice, pulp, and loss were calculated on a weight basis. Results showed that when processed with a grinding/centrifugal type juice extractor, an average of 53.6% of the initial weight from sweetpotato culls can be extracted as juice. Also, as the initial weight of the culls increased, the percent juice extracted increased. The combined solids collected from the extracted pulp and the pulp remaining after equipment disassembly was on average 42.66% of the initial weight. The unsalvageable percent of juice and pulp was on average 3.93%. These results suggest that sweetpotato culls yield about half of their original weight as juice. Juice extraction may be a viable option for processing non-market grade sweetpotato culls. Sweetpotato juice may be consumed as a beverage or combined with other juices to form a variety of juice blends.

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D.H. Picha

The use of heat shrinkable plastic film for wrapping individual sweetpotato roots was evaluated as a form of value-added packaging. Individual shrink wrapping of sweetpotatoes is a recently adopted but increasingly used retail marketing technique. The shrink wrapping process involves enclosing individual roots in shrink film which is cut and heat sealed followed by transfer through a heat tunnel to create a tightly sealed package. Film thickness ranges from 40 to 100 microns (gauge). Manual, semi-automatic, and automatic application methods are available. Fully automated commercial methods approach a speed of 1 wrapped root per second. Shrink wrapping adds value to fresh market sweetpotatoes by enhancing appearance, reducing weight loss, and allowing for individual root labeling. Various film types and thicknesses were tested under simulated retail conditions. Root weight loss from shrink wrapped roots was significantlyreduced during storage, ranging from a total of 0.5% in wrapped roots to 2.5% in unwrapped roots after 3 weeks of ambient storage. There was an inverse relationship between film thickness and root weight loss, with the thicker gauge films showing the least amount of weight loss. Film type and thickness did not influence overall root flavor and sweetness perception. In order to reduce the incidence of surface mold, the root must be completely dry before wrapping. This form of packaging offers significant potential for enhancing retail consumer demand.

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Karen Gast, Rolando Flores, Fadi Aramouni, Lisa Abeles-Allison and Elizabeth Boyle

Value-added is the transformation of a raw product, usually an agricultural product, into a product that serves consumer demand better. The value-added product usually has an increased value and a higher return than the raw product. Kansas is one of the lowest ranking midwestern states for the number of value-added industries, although it is one of the greatest producers of raw agricultural products. An interdisciplinary team of Extension Specialists was created to promote and to serve small and medium size value-added businesses in the state. This poster will describe Kansas State University Cooperative Extension's approach to serving this clientele.

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Jonathan Phillips, E. Jay Holcomb and Kathleen Kelley

plants, and vegetables ( Behe et al., 1999 ; Frank et al., 2001 ; Kelley et al., 2001 ; Wolnick, 1983 ). Because of this influence, it is necessary to carefully identify how consumers value color combinations when evaluating the purchase of value-added

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John J. Haydu, Alan. W. Hodges and Charles R. Hall

.83 resulting in an adjusted value of $5.64 B (2002 dollars). This higher value reflects the 486 Florida golf facilities not represented in the Census figures. Employment and value added impacts were also adjusted accordingly. Finally, because all original

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Christopher D. Harlow, Elizabeth S. Larrea and Mary M. Peet*

Research was initiated at the N.C. State Univ. Horticultural Field Laboratory, Raleigh, to identify cultural practices and tomato cultivars giving superior taste under North Carolina greenhouse conditions. The specialty cultivars `67', `Diana', `Elegance', `Momotaro', and `S630' were grown and harvested, as well as `Trust', which is grown on 85% of the North American greenhouse tomato acreage. Additionally, two fertilizer regimes were provided to the plants: standard greenhouse tomato fertilization (EC ≈1.75 dS·m-1) or high fertilization (EC ≈3.75 dS·m-1). Fertilizers were the same in both treatments. Seeds were started in October 2002 and transplanted, 2 per pot, into `Bato' buckets containing perlite in November. Standard cultural practices were followed, and plants were fertigated using the Harrow Fertigation Manager™ system. Taste tests conducted on three dates revealed differences among cultivars, with `67', `Elegance' and `Momotaro' consistently scoring well. Overall, all test varieties were scored higher than `Trust'; however flavor was somewhat less sweet than anticipated, especially early in the season, averaging 2-3 on a scale of 5, where 5 was “best”. No significant differences were seen between the standard and high fertilization treatments. Differences in total harvest weight were seen among cultivars. `Elegance' and `67' produced fruit consistently well through the harvest season, while the remaining cultivars' yields were sporadic. Harvested fruit were homogenized, and Brix was measured as an indicator of fruit quality. Significant differences in Brix were seen among the cultivars, with `67' significantly higher than all other varieties and `Elegance' and `Momotaro' higher than the remaining cultivars. All specialty cultivars had higher °Brix than `Trust'.

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Paul M. Chen, Diane M. Varga and Clark F. Seavert

We have established that `d'Anjou' pears (Pyrus communis) are properly ripened for fresh-cut use when flesh firmness (FF) is between 5 lb (2.3 kg) and 7 lb (3.2 kg). In this study, the fruit was ripened in air enriched with 100 ppm (mL·L-1) ethylene at 68 °F (20.0 °C). Afterward, we investigated three slicing methods, each employing a fruit sectionizer for dividing individual pears into eight wedges. The easiest and most convenient cutting procedure involved pouring an antibrowning agent onto the incision, but without allowing the fruit to directly contact the air. We evaluated various combinations of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and potassium chloride (KCl) for their ability to prevent any discoloration while also not affecting taste or injuring the cut surface. The most suitable antibrowning solution contained 10% L-ascorbic acid and 2% KCl (pH 2.3). A dipping time of 30 s was sufficient for maintaining the wedges with little discoloration over a 14-d period, at either 30 or 35 °F (-1.1 or 1.7 °C). Here, we also present a prototype design for a 1.6-pt (0.76-L) transparent plastic container with eight compartments for holding wedges sliced with a commercially available sectionizer.

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Cesar Velasquez, Catherine Eastman and John Masiunas

Fresh-market vegetable production in the midwestern U.S. has been declining due to diminished returns received by farmers, competition from vegetables produced in other regions, older farmers retiring and not being replaced, and urban sprawl. To reverse this trend, midwestern-U.S. vegetable farmers must find ways to enhance the value of their production. One way might be the production of vegetable cultivars that have enhanced attributes desired by consumers. Our objective was to assess how Illinois farmers' current perceptions may affect acceptance and production of vegetable cultivars with enhanced health benefits. About 20% of Illinois fresh-market vegetable growers were surveyed. We found that the current media attention on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) infl uenced grower response. Farmers who were concerned about GMOs were 5 times more likely to reject growing new vegetable cultivars with enhanced health benefits even those developed with conventional breeding methods. However, farmers who were not concerned or who were undecided in their opinions concerning GMOs were 11 times more likely to adopt new cultivars. Education and research programs must be developed to supply information about vegetable cultivars with enhanced health benefits and to address farmers' concerns about GMOs.

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Florence A. Becot, Terence L. Bradshaw and David S. Conner

Hard cider production has increased annually by 50% between 2009 and 2014 in the United States while apple (Malus × domestica) orchards managed exclusively for cider apples are rare. Cider apples have unique flavor, acid, and tannin characteristics suited to only hard cider production. Demand for fruit by cider makers represents an emerging market for apple growers and an opportunity to diversify their production and marketing systems. The goal of this study was to compare the fruit requirements of cider makers with present cider fruit availability in orchards to identify opportunities and challenges for the growth of both industries, and we surveyed cider makers and apple growers. Growers in our study saw a market expansion opportunity in the growth of popularity of hard cider, but present apple prices were identified as a key threat. Cider makers are also expanding their operations, all of those sampled anticipate increasing their production in the next five years, but maintaining adequate fruit supply was identified as a major threat. Cider makers and apple growers have both expressed interest in dual-purpose cultivars that may be sold to the fresh market or for cider making. Apple growers have expressed guarded interest in growing specialty cider cultivars while cider makers have expressed a strong interest in increased production of cider-specific cultivars. We conclude that there are a number of potentially beneficial opportunities, particularly in increased production of dual-purpose and specialty cider cultivars, as long as price and coordination issues can be resolved.

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Harbans Bhardwaj and Anwar Hamama

Sprouts from various seeds are considered healthy for human consumption. However, no information is available about sprouts made from canola (Brassica napus L.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.), two new potential alternate crops in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Canola sprouts, on an average, contained (g/100 g, dry weight basis) 38.9 oil, and 61.5, 18.6, 9.2, 7.4, 92.6, 64.8, and 27.8 percent of 18:1, 18:2, 18:3, total unsaturated, total saturated, MUFA, and PUFA fatty acids, respectively, in the oil. Corresponding values for white lupin sprouts were: 6.5, 43.0, 24.9, 9.3, 17.9, 82.1, 47.9, and 34.2. Canola sprouts contained 26.9% protein, whereas white lupin sprouts contained 26.3% protein. Details of these experiments and further results would be presented.