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David Kohanbash, George Kantor, Todd Martin, and Lauren Crawford

irrigation to determine if irrigation is required or not. This lets us put commands in a packet that is already be transmitted instead of using power to send additional packets for that command. WSN software development The software and user interface

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Amy Fulcher, Juang-Horng (JC) Chong, Sarah A. White, Joseph C. Neal, Jean L. Williams-Woodward, Craig R. Adkins, S. Kristine Braman, Matthew R. Chappell, Jeffrey F. Derr, Winston C. Dunwell, Steven D. Frank, Stanton A. Gill, Frank A. Hale, William E. Klingeman, Anthony V. LeBude, Karen Rane, and Alan S. Windham

of people within and outside of the target market is an important step of “ground truthing” the concept, level of functionality, design, and user interface. The focus group session for IPM Pro was an integral step during development, helping to

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Matthew Chappell, Sue K. Dove, Marc W. van Iersel, Paul A. Thomas, and John Ruter

Devices). Web-based graphical user interface. SensorWeb, developed by Carnegie–Melon University as part of this project ( Kohanbash et al., 2013 ), allowed growers to view irrigation and environmental data while in monitoring-mode and send irrigation

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Niels Ehler, Mark A. Rose, and Jesper Mazanti Hansen

Currently, greenhouse environmental computers are programmed to monitor and control the macroclimate instead of directly controlling plant growth and development, which are features of more interest to growers. Our objective was to develop a generic system to represent and control the dynamic plant processes that regulate plant growth in the greenhouse. Before plant growth can be directly controlled, the dynamic interactions between the microclimate around plants and plant physiological processes must be further understood. Future computerized control systems must be able to display an intuitive, interactive software program that helps the user understand and make use of the dynamic relationships between climate controls, climate processes, and plant processes. A conceptual framework was designed for a user interface with a biological orientation. This software consists of five different elements: the information provider, the information monitor, the information browser, the growth system controller, and the system visualizer. A demonstrator application illustrating this concept was developed and connected in real time to a standard greenhouse environmental computer. Crop tissue temperature is calculated and used instead of conventional irradiance limits to control shading screens to optimize the amount of radiation absorbed by the crop. The application is based on a set of generic automatically created paradox databases. A graphical user interface on the screen displays virtual plants that are used for visualizing, understanding, and controlling the different processes governing the crop tissue temperature.

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William L. Bauerle, Dennis J. Timlin, Yakov A. Pachepsky, and Shruthi Anantharamu

Application of process-based models beyond the research community has been limited, in part because they do not operate in a user-friendly Windows environment. We describe the procedure of adapting a spatially explicit biological-process model, MAESTRA, to run in a standard graphical user interface (GUI). The methods used to adapt the MAESTRA model are generally applicable to other process-based models and therefore simplify other coupling attempts. We discuss recommendations based on our experiences for model input structure and interface design, two components that will allow various models to work with a generic interface. MAESTRA uses modified versions of the Ball-Berry stomatal conductance (gs) and Farquhar photosynthesis(Anet) models to estimate transpiration and photosynthesis on a leaf area basis and scale the sunlit and shaded fractions to the whole tree. We present MAESTRA estimates within a standardized graphical user interface for crop simulators (GUICS) windows environment and furthermore, we provide dialog boxes and graphical displays of the MAESTRA model input and whole tree output for red maple trees. In so doing, we present a technology transfer via the GUICS that prevents any watering down of the science behind the MAESTRA model, yet allows an accurate decision support tool to reach a wide audience.

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Douglas A. Hopper

One should choose the simplest form of a model as a tool that adequately represents the processes and relationships of interest. ROSESIM was first developed in SLAM II and FORTRAN to run on a mainframe computer, where it had few users and it was cumbersome to learn and use. As use of models on a personal computer (PC) has become more popular for instruction and simulation, ROSESIM was translated first into the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) to run in the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) language in the popular Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS). As graphical user interface (GUI) Windows applications have gained increased popularity, ROSESIM has been translated into C++ as object-oriented programming (OOP) to run inside Microsoft Windows 3.1. This makes ROSESIM for Windows readily available to virtually every PC user. Features of ROSESIM for Windows are listed and discussed.

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E.F. Gilman and H. Beck

A large horticultural database and an electronic retrieval system for extension education programs were developed using compact disk-read only memory (CD-ROM) and World Wide Web (WWW) as the medium for information delivery. Object-oriented database techniques were used to organize the information. Conventional retrieval techniques including hypertext, full text searching, and expert systems were integrated into a complete package for accessing information stored in the database. A multimedia user interface was developed to provide a variety of capabilities, including computer graphics and high-resolution digitized images. Information for the CD-ROM was gathered from extension publications that were tagged using the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) -based document markup language (International Standards Organization, 1986). Combining funds from the state legislator with grants from the USDA, and other institutions, the CD-ROM system has been implemented in all 67 county extension offices in Florida and is available to the public as a for sale CD-ROM. Public access is also available to most of the database through the WWW.

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Douglas A. Hopper and Kevin Cifelli

An interactive simulation model of plant growth must be flexible to accept specific crop equations from the user. ROSESIM functions as a dynamic plant growth model based on `Royalty' rose (Rosa hybrida L) response to 15 unique treatment combinations of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), day temperature (DT), and night temperature (NT) under constant growth chamber conditions. Environmental factors are assumed constant over an entire day. Coefficients are read from an external ASCII file, thus permitting coefficients from any linear, quadratic, or interaction terms to be input into ROSESIM up to a full quadratic model form. Nonsignificant terms are given a coefficient of zero. ROSESIM has been restructured into Borland C++ object oriented program (OOP) code to execute in the Microsoft Windows 3.1 operating environment. This enables ease of operation in the user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) provided with most IBM personal computers (PC). The user chooses a set of environmental conditions which can be altered after any selected number of days, allowing conditions to be changed and modeled daily for interactive comparison studies.

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G.L. Davis, Edward F. Gilman, and Howard W. Beck

A large horticultural database and an electronic retrieval system for extension education programs were developed using compact disk-read only memory (CD-ROM) and World Wide Web (WWW) as the medium for information delivery. Object-oriented database techniques were used to organize the information. Conventional retrieval techniques including hypertext, full text searching, and expert systems were integrated into a complete package for accessing information stored in the database. A multimedia user interface was developed to provide a variety of capabilities including computer graphics and high resolution digitized images. Information for the CD-ROM was gathered from extension publications that were tagged using the standard generalized markup language (SGML)-based document markup language (International Standards Organization, 1986). Combining funds from the state legislator with grants from the USDA and other institutions, the CD-ROM system has been implemented in all 67 county extension offices in Florida and is available to the public as a for-sale CD-ROM. Public access is also available to most of the database through the WWW.

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Arthur Villordon

, to planning for programming and other costs, to user interface design using the team’s experience as a model. This presentation underscores the fact that app development is a dynamic process that requires detailed planning and close coordination among