Artificially inoculated single-leaf cuttings and small plants consistently differentiated european black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) cultivars susceptible to white pine blister rust (WPBR; Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.) from immune cultivars carrying the Cr resistance gene. Black currant cultivars Consort, Crusader, and Titania showed no signs of infection with any of 21 strains of WPBR, suggesting that strains able to overcome immunity conferred by the Cr resistance gene, if they exist, are uncommon in North America. However, in red currant (Ribes rubrum L.), two sources of material presumed to represent the immune cultivar Viking showed no resistance to infection. All rust strains infected and sporulated as if the cultivar were fully susceptible, casting doubt on the true identity of available sources of `Viking'.
Lisa A. Beirn, William A. Meyer, Bruce B. Clarke, and Jo Anne Crouch
performed to screen germplasm for several decades ( Jackson et al., 2008 ). In the cereal rust system, the procedure entails: 1) spraying a mineral oil suspension of viable urediniospores onto susceptible plants, 2) placing plants in a dew chamber overnight
Ebrahiem M. Babiker, Stephen J. Stringer, Barbara J. Smith, and Hamidou F. Sakhanokho
in early summer when the windblown aeciospores spread from hemlocks ( Tsuga spp.), an alternate host, to infect young blueberry leaves. In the southeastern United States, the urediniospores of T. minima are believed to survive the winter in a broad
Yonghao Li, Mark T. Windham, Robert N. Trigiano, Donna C. Fare, James M. Spiers, and Warren E. Copes
Infection process of Puccinia hemerocallidis, the causal agent of daylily rust, and resistance responses in eight daylily cultivars, were studied macroscopically and microscopically. After germination of urediniospores, appressoria were formed at the tip of germ tubes and penetrated through stomatal openings. Intercellular hyphae aggregated and formed uredia under the infection sites, and released urediniospores after rupturing the epidermis. In highly resistant cultivars `Prairie Blue Eyes' and `Bertie Ferris', intercellular hyphal growth was restricted and uredia were not formed. No macroscopic symptoms of the disease were present on the leaf surface, although a few collapsed cells were observed microscopically. Both resistant and moderately resistant reactions were characterized by necrotic lesions with many collapsed cells under infection sites. The difference between these two reactions was that uredia and urediniospores were observed on the moderately resistant cultivar `Chicago Apache', but not on resistant cultivars, `Buttered Popcorn' and `Stella De Oro'. Sporulation was observed on both moderately susceptible and susceptible cultivars, but latent periods were delayed and the amount of urediniospore production was reduced on moderately susceptible cultivars, `Mary Todd' and `Chorus Line', compared to the susceptible cultivar `Pardon Me'. The results indicate that the hypersensitive cell death is one of the resistance responses to daylily rust, but necrotic lesions on leaf surfaces are associated with the amount of collapsed host cells. The delayed latent periods and reduced sporulation that resulted from restricted intercellular hyphal growth could represent another resistance mechanism in the daylily rust pathosystem.
D.R. Bergdahl and H.B. Teillon
White pine blister rust (WPBR) (Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fischer) has been present in Vermont and other northeastern states since the early 1900s. The fungus is commonly observed on currants and gooseberries (Ribes L.) every year, but incidence varies on eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). Our general impression has been that Vermont has had a relatively low level of infection on eastern white pines; however, we recently found rust incidence in Christmas tree plantings in northern Vermont to range from 10 to 42% (average 20%) based on 721 trees surveyed. Also, in pole-sized stands in southern Vermont, incidence ranged from 12 to 46% (average 32%) and 76% of these trees had main stem infections. In the southern survey, 98% of wild ribes plants had varied amounts of both urediniospores and teliospores. These preliminary survey data suggest that incidence of WPBR may be more significant than previously thought and therefore, additional survey work is needed. We screened cultivars of Ribes for susceptibility to WPBR. Eighteen cultivars were inoculated in the field with a mass collection of aeciospores of C. ribicola. The percentages of leaf area infected ranged from 0 to 49 for the urediniospore stage and from 0 to 55 for teliospores. The gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa L.) `Welcome' had the highest percentage of leaf area with urediniospores, while black currants (R. nigrum L.) `Coronet,' `Consort,' and `Crusader' had no visible infection. Presently, Vermont has no WPBR regulations. However, previous federal laws did restrict black currant cultivation. Little is known about the genetic diversity of WPBR or its potential for change. Caution must be used when considering any cultivation of Ribes for the purpose of producing fruit because our valued white pine resources could be negatively impacted.
Haytham Z. Zaiter, Dermot P. Coyne, and James R. Steadman
Sixteen Alubia lines (15 with long, straight hairs and one with short, hooked hairs on trifoliolate leaves) derived from single-plant selections made in an Alubia landrace (Argentine) were used to evaluate the relation of abaxial leaf pubescence to reaction to rust in a greenhouse experiment. The pinto cultivar UI-114 (short, hooked hairs) was used as a susceptible check. One plant per pot, replicated six times, in a randomized complete-block design was used. The primary leaves and the sixth trifoliolates of all plants from 12- and 50-day-old plants, respectively, were inoculated with a water suspension of urediniospores (105 cells/ml) of rust isolate US-NP85-10-1. Pustule size and rust intensity were assessed 14 days later. No rust pustules were observed on the sixth trifoliolate leaves of the pubescent (long, straight hairs) Alubia lines, but large pustules were observed on the primary leaves (short, hooked hairs) of all Alubia lines and pinto `UI-114'. as well as on the sixth trifoliolate leaf of A-07-2 and pinto `UI-144' (the latter two with short, hooked hairs).
Maria M. Jenderek* and Richard Hannan
In California, rust (Puccinia allii) on garlic (Allium sativum) was not considered an economic problem until 1998, when a severe infection of the disease caused an average 51% reduction in yield throughout the state. The weight of harvested bulbs was 25% to 60% smaller than the average weight in the previous year, and soluble solids were reduced by an average of 15%. Until recently, garlic varieties that are resistant or highly tolerant to rust have not been grown in garlic production fields in California. Open pollinated progenies derived from 3 Plant Introduction accessions of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service germplasm collection (PI 493099, PI 540315 and W6 12820) were inoculated with a suspension of urediniospores (1, 2 × 105/mL) isolated from rust infected garlic leaves obtained from production fields in Kings, Fresno and Yolo counties. Inoculations were carried out in a replicated experiment in the field under plastic covers, where 12 hours of misting was applied. The disease symptoms were scored on all leaves of the inoculated plants. The size of observed lesions varied from <1 to 280 mm2. Of the 118 plants evaluated, 9.3% had an average leaf area with rust symptoms of less than 1%. The majority of the plants (83.1%) had 1 to 5% of leaf area infected, and over 6% of plants had symptoms on 5 to 25% of their leaf surface. The highest number of plants with a low percent of rust symptoms on leaves was observed on progenies produced from PI 493099. While all maternal plants used to produce the seeds showed rust symptoms, the presence of progenies with ≤0.5% of leaf area infected indicated that a tolerance source to P. allii may exist in the A. sativum NPGS, germplasm collection.
Todd A. Burnes, Robert A. Blanchette, Jason A. Smith, and James J. Luby
leaves are infected with aeciospores from the pine, they develop uredinia that produce urediniospores that reinfect Ribes leaves during the summer months ( Sinclair et al., 1987 ). This is followed by the production of telia and basidia in late summer
Reid R. Rice and William F. Tracy
urediniospore suspension consisting of 15 mg urediniospores in 11 mg H 2 O with 5 drops of Tween 20 (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) added to prevent clumping, directed into the leaf whorls ( Chandler and Tracy, 2007 ). The West Madison common rust trial was
Eugene K. Blythe, Cecil Pounders, Michael Anderson, Earl Watts, and Barbara Watts
pathogen produces yellow-orange to rust-brown pustules containing urediniospores on upper and lower leaf surfaces within 1 to 2 weeks after infection ( Williams-Woodward et al., 2001 ). Additional symptoms reported on infected plants include bright yellow