Decisions regarding the selection and care of trees on public lands often are delegated to public employees with limited knowledge of tree care. To provide a technical resource for the municipal employee, the Urban Forestry Notebook was developed through sponsorship by Puget Power (a major Pacific Northwest utility company), Washington State Department of Natural Resources, and the Center. The unique focus of this Notebook provided the municipal employee with information on the selection and care of 65 of the most important urban trees. It also can be used as a model by other communities who wish to improve the care of their urban trees by providing an informational resource for the public employee.
Sue Ann Funk, John A. Wott, James R. Clark, and Gordon A. Bradley
Kit L. Chin, Bobby R. Phills, Catalino A. Blanche, V. R. Bachireddy, Yadong Qi, and Kamran K. Abdollahi
Nationally, the urban and community forests are in a state of rapid decline. About 52% of street trees are dead or dying. The average tree life of the urban areas is about five times less than in rural areas. The growing national awareness of the importance and benefits of trees and their role in maintaining a healthy environment magnifies the need for urban forestry training programs. The Southern University Urban Forestry Program (funded by USDA Forest Service, Southern Region) is set up to address the critical need for high quality, user-oriented urban forestry training for minority students, and to bridge the gap between minority participation and national forestry resources, education and management programs. This unique program places major emphasis on experiential learning activities in addition to sound academic education. The four-year curriculum will be centered around forestry, horticulture, urban and community planning and landscape architecture.
L. Nash, W. Fountain, and M. Witt
In a unique partnership. the University of Kentucky Dept. of Horticulture, the Cooperative Extension Service, and the Kentucky State Division of Forestry are teaming up to produce two training packages for “train-the-trainer” workshops throughout the state. The workshops will be open to people interested in urban/community trees and arboriculture.
The first training session will be held in 1993 and will cover five modules: 1) Designing the planting site to compensate for a disturbed environment; 2) Species selection for the existing site; 3) Scientific planting techniques; 4) Post-planting care: and 5) Integrated pest management.
The second training session will be held in 1994 and will cover the following topics: 1) Establishing a scientific management program for the urban forest; 2) Preparation and administration of grants: 3) Fund-raising and efficient use of volunteers; 4) Developing an urban tree inventory; 5) Recognition of hazard trees; and 6) Selecting quality nursery stock.
The training packages will consist of a written manual, videos, and slide sets. Training sessions are open to foresters, county agents, city planners, developers, and others in Kentucky who are interested in returning to their communities and training others on the topics covered.
Manuela Baietto and A. Dan Wilson
effective wind breaks ( Dwyer et al., 1992 ; McPherson and Biedenbender, 1991 ; McPherson and Rowntree, 1993 ). For these reasons, urban forestry is rapidly gaining in importance relative to commercial forestry as urban trees continue to appreciate in
Susan D. Day, Sheri T. Dorn, Diane Relf, and J. Roger Harris
The Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) Advanced Master Gardener-Tree Steward (AMGTS) program provides advanced training in leadership development and arboriculture to MG volunteer educators so they may expand the influence of extension through leadership in community forestry. A statewide survey of agents, MGs, and foresters served as the basis for developing the training package, which was funded in part by the Virginia Department of Forestry. According to a statewide survey, 70% of VCE MGs and extension agents with MG programs would like to be involved in community tree programming, while only 26% was currently involved. Typically, agents cited limited staff and volunteer resources as the primary factors in restricting program expansion. Furthermore, 90% of municipal foresters indicated they would like to work with trained volunteers. The AMGTS program simultaneously answers the desire of MGs to expand their role in the community landscape and the need of VCE to expand its outreach with increasingly limited resources. AMGTS training, guided by a 10-unit resource book, integrates technical and program management expertise to foster volunteer pride and self-sufficiency. This allows MG tree stewards to coordinate much of their own training and recruit and manage non-MG volunteers to whom they can provide limited training for specific projects, thus allowing program expansion without additional staff. The training is designed for delivery by knowledgeable professionals in the local community, such as arborists, horticulturists, college professors, extension specialists, MGs, and others who can provide quality training following the program guidelines.
Roger Kjelgren, Yongyut Trisurat, Ladawan Puangchit, Nestor Baguinon, and Puay Tan Yok
, C. Ngomanda, A. Jolly, D. 2008 Possible impacts of 21st century climate on vegetation in Central and West Africa Global Planet. Change 64 3 15 Deloya, M.C. 1993 Urban forestry activities in Mexico Unasylva 173 28 32 Elliot, S. Baker, P.J. Borchert, R
Ghazal Tarar, Coleman L. Etheredge, Amy McFarland, Amy Snelgrove, Tina M. Waliczek, and Jayne M. Zajicek
, E.G. 2000 Urban forestry: The final frontier? J. For. 101 20 25 Mirela, B. 2009 Managing stress: The key to organizational wellness. Ann. Univ. Oradea Econ. Sci. Ser. 18:112–116 Moore, K. 2013 Income linked to heart attack survival. 7 Sept. 2014
R.C. Beeson Jr.
Photinia plants produced in 11.4-liter polyethylene containers using a pine bark-based medium were transplanted into a well-drained sand and irrigated on alternate days. Polyethylene barriers were placed under half the root balls at transplanting to limit gravitational water loss. Plant water potential was measured diurnally between irrigations, and root growth was determined at 4-month intervals. Plants with barriers averaged higher cumulative daily water stress than control plants over the year, although predawn and minimum water potentials were similar. Growth index and trunk diameter were similar for the plants over barriers and controls, but the former were taller after 1 year. Plants with barriers had twice the horizontal root growth into the landscape site as control plants, resulting in twice the root mass in the landscape after 1 year.
E.F. Gilman and R.J. Beeson
The root : shoot ratio for Ilex cassine L. grown 7 months in copper-treated containers was less than in nontreated containers. There was less dry weight for roots <5 mm in diameter in copper-treated containers than in nontreated containers in the outer 1 cm of the rootball. Dry weight of roots >5 mm in diameter within the rootball were not affected by copper hydroxide treatment. Coating the interior of a plastic container with cupric hydroxide eliminated coarse roots (> 5 mm in diameter) and significantly reduced fine root weight from the outer 1 cm of the rootball. Fine roots inside the rootball did not replace fine roots lacking in the outer 1 cm.
R.C. Beeson Jr.
Large (≈5 m high) Quercus virginiana Mill. (live oak) trees produced in 0.64-m-diameter in-ground fabric containers were root pruned or not root pruned inside containers before harvest. Harvested trees were grown in two sizes of polyethylene containers for 10 months, then transplanted into a landscape. Water potential (ψT) of small branches (<4 mm in diameter) was measured diurnally during containerization and for 1 year in the landscape. Root pruning had no influence on postharvest survival. Neither root pruning nor container size affected tree water status during containerization or in the landscape. All surviving trees recovered from transplant shock following harvest after 16 weeks in a container, independent of treatment. In the landscape, 35 weeks of daily irrigation were required before dusk ψT declined to within 0.1 MPa of predawn values, a result indicating alleviation of transplant shock. Trunk growth rate during containerization was highest in larger containers. However, in the landscape, root pruning and small containers were associated with higher trunk growth rate. Tree water status during containerization and in the landscape is discussed.