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Isabelle Grechi, Nadine Hilgert, Michel Génard and Françoise Lescourret

kinetics), and to the flesh fresh weight at harvest. The description of metabolic processes was revised. Because there is generally uncertainty in the values of both the input variables (observed or predicted) and the parameters used in models, there is

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Andrés Javier Peña Quiñones, Melba Ruth Salazar Gutierrez and Gerrit Hoogenboom

when they are not needed, and 2) keeping devices off when they should be turned on. Optimal use of frost control devices could avoid such scenarios that occur when growers take risks due to a lack of sufficient information and uncertainty about whether

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Richard J. Ronk, James H. Maryanksi and Patricia Thompson

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Roger Kjelgren, Yongyut Trisurat, Ladawan Puangchit, Nestor Baguinon and Puay Tan Yok

Urban trees are a critical quality of life element in rapidly growing cities in tropical climates. Tropical trees are found in a wide variety of habitats governed largely by the presence and duration of monsoonal dry periods. Tropical cities can serve as a proxy for climate change impacts of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), urban heat island, and drought-prone root zones on successful urban trees. Understanding the native habitats of species successful as tropical urban trees can yield insights into the potential climate impact on those habitats. Species from equatorial and montane wet forests where drought stress is not a limiting factor are not used as urban trees in cities with monsoonal dry climates such as Bangkok and Bangalore. Absence of trees from a wet habitat in tropical cities in monsoonal climates is consistent with model and empirical studies suggesting wet evergreen species are vulnerable to projected climates changes such as lower rainfall and increased temperatures. However, monsoonal dry forest species appear to have wider environmental tolerances and are successful urban trees in cities with equatorial wet climates such as Singapore as well as cities with monsoonal climates such as Bangkok and Bangalore. In cities with monsoonal dry climates, deciduous tree species are more common than dry evergreen species. Although dry deciduous species generally have better floral displays, their prevalence may in part be the result of greater tolerance of urban heat islands and drought in cities; this would be consistent with modeled habitat gains at the expense of dry evergreen species in native forest stands under projected higher temperatures from climate change. Ecological models may also point to selection of more heat- and drought-tolerant species for tropical cities under projected climate change.

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Sebastain N. Awondo, Esendugue Greg Fonsah and Dennis J. Gray

growers. Most if not all of the existing budgets are based on traditional (nonstochastic) costs, yield, and price estimates, with little or no consideration for uncertainty stemming from production and marketing risk inherent in agriculture. Traditional

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Eileen M. Perry, Ian Goodwin and David Cornwall

evaluate the impact of uncertainty in canopy reflectance measurements on estimated leaf %/N using M3CI. Leaf %N was computed from M3CI using relationships developed with measured leaf %N (discussed in Results). The errors were propagated through the

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Thomas H. Spreen and Marisa L. Zansler

increased uncertainty associated with HLB. Fig. 4. New citrus tree plantings in Florida have been less than 50% of tree mortality/removal rates since 2009 as noted by the rate of decline in the Florida commercial citrus tree inventory ( National Agricultural

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Katie Ellis, Tara Auxt Baugher and Karen Lewis

fill a local leadership role; their endorsement can carry weight among the early majority (34%) and late majority (34%) adopters who tend to hedge their bets by obtaining information from them ( Lamb et al., 2008 ). Those who have the least uncertainty

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Deborah Pagliaccia, Georgios Vidalakis, Greg W. Douhan, Ramiro Lobo and Gary Tanizaki

San Diego (Sven Merton, personal communication). This situation provides just another example where lack of information and uncertainty with regard to the taxonomy of pitahaya further exacerbates confusion among breeders, extension personnel, and

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A. Maaike Wubs, Yun T. Ma, Ep Heuvelink, Lia Hemerik and Leo F.M. Marcelis

/3 [sic])}. Fitting a sigmoid curve to dry weight growth would therefore cause a relatively large uncertainty in the estimation of w max . The parameter w max , the final fruit weight, is an important indicator for fruit quality and is also an important