occurring allelochemicals present in single-lobed glandular trichomes (type IV) that do not occur in cultivated tomato ( Muigai et al., 2002 ). In S. pennellii , acylsugars present in type IV trichomes were related to whitefly resistance ( Blauth et al
Aliya Momotaz, Jay W. Scott, and David J. Schuster
Barbara E. Liedl, Darlene M. Lawson, Kris K. White, Joseph A. Shapiro, William G. Carson, John T. Trumble, and Martha A. Mutschler
Acylsugars, the primary components of the exudate secreted by type IV trichomes of Lycopersicon pennellii (Corr.) D'Arcy LA716, mediate the resistance of this accession to silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, n. sp. Reduction in the settling of the adult silverleaf whiteflies correlates with the concomitant increase in applied acylsugars. Oviposition of B. argentifolii is also affected by acylsugars, resulting in a reduction in the number of eggs and nymphs found; however, acylsugars do not affect hatching of nymphs. The threshold amount of acylsugars required for deterring settling and oviposition is under the amount of acylsugars (50 to 70 μg·cm–1) required for control of other insects.
J.C. Goffreda, J.C. Steffens, and M.A. Mutschler
Behavioral studies have shown that aphid resistance in Lycopersicon pennellii (Corr.) D'Arcy is due to the presence of sugar esters in glandular exudate of the type IV trichomes. In this study, various methods for the estimation of epicuticular sugar ester concentrations were examined. There was a significant negative relationship between the concentration of sugar esters on the leaf and the level of potato aphid infestation in a segregating L. esculentum × L. pannellii F2 population. Selection for sugar ester accumulation should be an efficient selection technique for the aphid resistance of L. pennellii and other species that synthesize epicuticular sugar esters.
Zhenhua Guo and John C. Snyder
Choice and non-choice bioassays were used to examine deterrence in vitro and in vivo of Tetranychus urticae Koch. In vivo deterrence of leaflets from 11 Lycopersicon hirsutum accessions as well as the tomato cultivar `Ace 55' was measured as was in vitro deterrence of their leaf hexane extracts. Leaf surface chemistry was examined by gas chromatography. All 6 accessions of L. hirsutum f. hirsutum contained sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Each of these extracts also contained one or a few late eluting components. All were deterrent in vitro and 5 out of the 6 were deterrent in vivo. The one lacking in vivo deterrence had low density of type IV trichomes. All 5 accessions of L. hirsutum f. glabratum contained methyl ketones. These accessions were less deterrent in vitro and 4 out of the 5, less deterrent in vivo. The one accession having high in vivo deterrence also had high density of type IV trichomes. `Ace 55', having few hexane extractable compounds was neither deterrent in vitro nor in vivo. Within an accession, secretions from different types of trichomes shared similar chemical profiles and were similar to leaf profiles.
Rafael Fernández-Muñoz, María Salinas, Marta Álvarez, and Jesús Cuartero
Genetics of resistance to Tetranychus urticae Koch and of glandular trichomes of Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium accession TO-937 in a cross between susceptible L. esculentum Mill. `Moneymaker' and resistant TO-937 was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Parents, F1, F2, and two BC1 generations, interspersed with susceptible tomato plants to avoid negative interplot interference, were artificially infested. Mite susceptibility was evaluated by a rating based on plant capacity to support mite reproduction. TO-937, BC1 to TO-937, and F1 were resistant, `Moneymaker' susceptible, and the F2 and the BC1 to `Moneymaker' segregated. Resistance was controlled by a single dominant major locus, but modulated by unknown minor loci. TO-937 presented type IV glandular trichomes, their presence governed by two dominant unlinked loci. Type IV trichome density correlated to resistance; however, a causal relationship between type IV trichomes and mite resistance could not be definitively established. The relatively simple inheritance mode will favor successful introgression of resistance into commercial tomatoes from the close relative L. pimpinellifolium.
Martha A. Mutschler, Rebecca W. Doerge, Sin-Chieh Liu, Jian P. Kuai, Barbara E. Liedl, and Joseph A. Shapiro
Lycopersicon pennellii, a wild relative of the tomato, L. esculentum, is resistant to a number of important pests of cultivated tomato due to the accumulation of acylsugars, which constitute 90% of L. pennellii LA716 type IV trichome exudate. An interspecific F2 population created by crossing L. esculentum × L. pennellii was surveyed for acylsugar accumulation and subjected to RFLP analysis to determine the genomic regions associated with the levels of acylglucoses, acylsucroses, and total acylsugars accumulated, and glucose as a percentage of total acylsugars. Data was analyzed using MAPMAKER with and without log10 transformation and using a threshold of either 2.4 (default value for MAPMAKER) or ones calculated according to the Permutation-based Estimated Threshold (PET) method. Genomic regions were identified for each of the traits studied. Effects of analytical method on identification of QTLs, similarities between these results and results published for the genus Solanum, and similarities between these results and the regions transferred by a breeding program selecting for acylsugar production are discussed.
Dalia Taher, Mohamed Rakha, Srinivasan Ramasamy, Svein Solberg, and Roland Schafleitner
contrast to nonglandular trichomes, increased spider mite resistance. For instance, spider mite resistance was highly correlated with a high density of glandular type IV trichome in several tomato wild relatives ( Maluf et al., 2007 ; Onyambus et al., 2011