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Supriyo Basak, Guangyan Wang, Xudong Sun and Yongping Yang

). The mechanism by which GS has been shaped by ecological and evolutionary forces among cultivated members of this family is unknown. Turnip is an important biennial, outcrossing, mesopolyploid herbaceous plant in the Brassicaceae family and is native

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Xinjuan Chen, Zhujun Zhu, Joska Gerendás and Nadine Zimmermann

. purpurea ), pakchoi ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis ), and turnip ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. rapifera ). Materials and Methods Plant materials. Five species of Brassica campestris vegetables were used for this

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Veronica L. Justen, Jerry D. Cohen, Gary Gardner and Vincent A. Fritz

basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.; Loughrin and Kasperbauer, 2001 ) and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa ; Atkinson et al., 2006 ). Antonious et al. (1996) found that turnips grown with different colored mulches (black plastic mulch painted blue, white

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Veronica L. Justen and Vincent A. Fritz

into the canopy of turnip plants and also appreciably change soil temperature ( Justen et al., 2011 ). Depending on the planting date and type of mulch, average soil temperatures under mulches during the turnip growing season can be up to 5 °C above and

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Timothy Coolong, Derek M. Law, John C. Snyder, Brent Rowell and Mark A. Williams

-eight varieties of leafy greens were evaluated ( Tables 1–6 ). Nine mustard, eight kale, five collards, five turnip, five swiss chard, and six arugula varieties were evaluated for their performance in an organic production system. The majority of varieties

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Regina P. Bracy and Richard L. Parish

A precision seeder (Stanhay Model 870) and a bulk seeder (Planet Jr.) were used to evaluate the effects of precision seeding, seed spacing, and row configuration on yield and grade-out of two cultivars of root turnips. Seed spacings for the precision seeder included within-row (WIR) spacings of 56, 112, and 168 mm in single plant line/row and 112 and 168 mm in two plant lines/row. Seed spacings with the bulk seeder were obtained by using 100% viable seed or a 50% viable: 50% killed seed mix. The experiments were conducted during the spring and fall on two rows on a 1.2-m-wide bed. Total yield was not affected by plant population or seeder. Plant population, however, caused a shift in yield among grades. Yield of culls increased as plant population increased. Yield of extra-large (>114 mm) roots decreased as plant population increased. Turnips seeded 168 mm apart in a single line/row yielded more extra-large and large (25-114 mm) grade roots and less medium (4-24 mm) and cull (<4 mm or misshapen) roots. More consistent results were obtained with the precision seeder than the bulk seeder. During both seasons, yield was lower for the hybrid (`Royal Crown') cultivar than for the open-pollinated (`Purple Top White Globe') cultivar.

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Eric H. Simonne, Doyle A. Smittle and Harry A. Mills

An irrigation scheduling model for turnip (Brassica rapa L.) was validated using a line-source irrigation system in a 2-year field trial. The model used a water balance, a variable root length, and a crop factor function of plant age (i). Evapotranspiration was computed daily as class A pan evaporation times a crop factor [CF(i) = 0.365 + 0.0154i-0.00011i2]. Irrigation according to the model maintained soil water tension at <25 kPa at a 30-cm depth. When rainfall amounts were less than water use, leaf yields responded quadratically to irrigation rates, from 0% to 160% of the model rate, and the highest leaf yield with the lowest water applications corresponded to the model rate. Therefore, this model could replace the “feel or see” methods commonly used for scheduling irrigation of leafy vegetables grown in the southeastern United States.

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Eric Simonne and Doyle A. Smittle

An irrigation scheduling model for turnip greens (Brassica rapa L.) was developed and validated.. The irrigation scheduling model is represented by the equation: 12.7 (i-3) * 0.5 ASW = 0i-1 + Ei(0.365+0.00154i+0.00011i2) - R - I where crop age is i; effective root depth is 12.7 * (i-3) with a maximum of 300 mm; usable water (cm/cm of soil) is 0.5 ASW; deficit on the previous day is Di-1 evapotranspiration; is pan evaporation (Ei) times 0.365+0.0154i+0.00011i2; rainfall (R) and irrigation (I) are in millimeters. Yield measured as leaf weight, and quality analyzed in terms of color (Gardner XL20 cronameter L, a, b), leaf blade and blade: stem weight ratio were determined. Leaf yield and quality responses were affected by both irrigation and fertilizer rates. Yield increased quadratically as irrigation rates increased from 0 to 190% of the model rate. Maximum leaf yields were produced by irrigations at 100% of the model rate. Leaf quality parameters also tended to change quadratically with irrigation rates. Leaf yield and quality changed quadratically as nitrogen fertilizer rates increased from 80 to 120% of the median recommended N rate for Georgia.

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V.I. Shattuck, Y. Kakuda, B.J. Shelp and N. Kakuda

The influence of low-temperature on the starch, sugar and glucosinolate content was studied in the mature roots of field and greenhouse-grown turnip. A decrease in both starch and sugar levels was recorded in roots after storage at 0°C for 4 weeks. On the other hand, when plants were exposed to a series of cold treatments, the starch level remained constant but the level of sugars increased in roots. In our studies, turnip roots exhibited the capacity to synthesize and degrade specific glucosinolates at low temperatures. The implications of these findings on the sensory characteristics of the root will be discussed.

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Diego Pozueta-Romero, Pedro Gonzalez, Ed Etxeberria and Javier Pozueta-Romero

-carrier transport within both phases of the characteristic accumulation curve. To study the interrelationship between sucrose uptake mechanisms, we selected turnip hypocotyls, not only for having sucrose as a main form of carbon transport ( Nishikawa et al., 2005