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Grant J. Klein and Robert L. Green

Turfgrass management best management practices (BMPs) encompass a wide variety of activities, including fertilization, irrigation, mowing, pest control, and soil management. Little attention is given to determining just how effective information regarding BMPs is being assimilated and used by professional turfgrass managers. The objectives of this study were to assess the current perception and implementation of selected turfgrass BMPs and to determine whether or not those perceptions and implementations differed 1) between turfgrass advisors and managers and 2) between general and sports turfgrass managers. Professionals from the turfgrass industry, with an average of 13 years of experience and largely comprised of decision-makers (88%), were surveyed at the University of California, Riverside, Turfgrass Research Conference and Field Day in Fall 1998 and 1999. Turfgrass managers, especially sports turfgrass managers, were found to be the most committed to implementing the BMPs in the survey. Overall, survey respondents considered BMPs to be important and not highly difficult to implement. Limitations to the adoption of BMPs were a lack of financial backing, employee education, and necessary time—all of which could be remedied with a sufficient commitment of resources by the turfgrass industry.

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John J. Haydu, Alan. W. Hodges and Charles R. Hall

If a consumer survey of the general public were conducted today on the U.S. turfgrass industry, most people would likely know little about it. One could go even further by stating that many researchers and specialists in Land Grant Universities

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Chengyan Yue, Jingjing Wang, Eric Watkins, Stacy A. Bonos, Kristen C. Nelson, James A. Murphy, William A. Meyer and Brian P. Horgan

(university, government, or private company), years of working experience in the turfgrass industry, and the sex and education level of respondents were also collected. We obtained a total of 54 responses, but several were incomplete; therefore, they were

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Keenan Amundsen and Scott Warnke

The bentgrasses ( Agrostis spp.) are important species to the turfgrass industry because of their ability to form a dense, high-quality turf at low mowing heights. There are between 150 and 200 species of Agrostis ( Harvey, 2007 ), and the

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Masoud Arghavani, Mohsen Kafi, Mesbah Babalar, Roohangiz Naderi, Md. Anamul Hoque and Yoshiyoki Murata

( Beard, 1973 ). Plant growth regulators like TE are used extensively in the turfgrass industry to reduce mowing frequency and improve aesthetics ( Ervin and Zhang, 2007 ). TE competitively inhibits the 3β-hydroxylase conversion of gibberellic acid-20 (GA

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Lisa L. Baxter and Brian M. Schwartz

Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) is the foundation of the turfgrass industry in most tropical and warm-temperate regions. Development of bermudagrass as a turfgrass began in the early 1900s. Many of the cultivars commercially available today have been cooperatively released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) and the University of Georgia at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station in Tifton, GA.

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Thomas A. Obreza and Jerry B. Sartain

Florida's citrus (Citrus spp.), vegetable, and turfgrass industries must improve nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer use efficiency to remain sustainable in an era of emerging environmental policies designed to protect water quality. Producers have traditionally used water-soluble N and P fertilizers because they are plentiful and economical. Improving nutrient use efficiency (NUE) is being addressed through implementation of best management practices (BMPs) such as nutrient management planning, proper fertilizer material selection, better application timing and placement, and improved irrigation scheduling. Emerging technology that will aid in this effort includes increased use of enhanced efficiency fertilizers (EEFs), organic soil amendments, fertigation, and foliar fertilization. However, any new technology shown to improve NUE must be economically feasible before it can be considered a BMP. Future research in this area will aim to improve the economics of EEFs and precision fertilizer application.

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William C. Kreuser and Frank S. Rossi

Petroleum-derived spray oils (PDSOs) have been used for pest management in horticulture and agronomy for over a century. Civitas™ is a new PDSO designed for use in the turfgrass industry. It is commonly mixed with low rates of pesticides to reduce the environmental impact and improve plant stress tolerance. Civitas can cause phytotoxicity, which has limited its acceptance by the turfgrass industry. Civitas is mixed with a green pigment called Harmonizer™ to sustain acceptable turfgrass color. A field study and a growth chamber study were designed to quantify phytotoxicity, understand the role of Harmonizer, and isolate the cause of Civitas-induced phytotoxicity. Civitas, Harmonizer, their combination (Two-Pack), and a water-only control were applied to a research putting surface in Ithaca, NY, during 2012 and 2013. Civitas and Harmonizer were applied every 2 weeks at the rates of 5.0 and 0.3 mL·m−2, respectively. Visual turfgrass quality rating and canopy temperature were quantified several times weekly. Civitas caused chlorosis and decline in visual quality during both years. Harmonizer masked chlorosis but did not prevent a drop in stand density during the second field season. Treatments were replicated on annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) in a growth chamber experiment. Civitas did not increase electrolyte leakage or alter the composition of cuticle; however, there were signs of oil persistence on the leaves and stomata and evidence of reduced gas exchange. Chlorosis resulting from oil persistence and reduced gas exchange is consistent with chronic PDSO phytotoxicity. This research demonstrated the potential for phytotoxicity with high rates of Civitas. Lower application rates likely reduce the potential for phytotoxicity but may also minimize the pest control benefits associated with the product.

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Patricia M. Sweeney and T. Karl Danneberger

As the number of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars increases, the development of reliable identification methods becomes more important. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers show promise in cultivar identification. Since perennial ryegrass cultivars are composites of genotypes rather than a single genotype, finding markers that distinguish cultivars is difficult. The ideal cultivar identification procedure would use seed tissue as a DNA source and evaluate a single sample as representative of a cultivar. The objective of this research was to determine whether RAPD markers could be used to consistently distinguish bulk seed samples of perennial ryegrass cultivars. Two extraction protocols were evaluated. A quick, simple extraction resulted in the amplification of few consistent RAPD markers. The more labor-intensive extraction with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), however, produced more reliable RAPD markers. Eight of 11 cultivars were distinguished by using RAPD markers produced using bulk seed samples together with four of 30 primers that were screened. These results show the potential of RAPD markers to provide the turfgrass industry, breeders, and certification agencies additional options to ensure the genetic integrity of perennial ryegrass seed lots and cultivars.

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Charles F. Mancino

Arizona's golf and sod industry generates $280 M year-1 in revenue and surpasses the vegetable, cotton and dairy industries. Despite the economic worth of turf, a need still exists to conserve the limited supply of potable water in this harsh Sonoran Desert environment. Mandatory water conservation programs have been developed for many sectors of the Arizona economy. To meet this challenge, the turfgrass industry and government bodies have begun to contribute to the development of research programs which reduce turfgrass water requirements and dependence upon potable water. Current research includes a) determining the minimum water requirements of higher quality turf under conditions of high temperatures and vapor pressure deficits; b) the turfgrass potential of grasses with lower water requirements than bermudagrass; c) the development of a statewide weather station network to predict daily turfgrass water use; and d) determine management strategies for turfgrass irrigated with wastewater effluent. The overall goal of these programs is to produce high quality and functional turf with 20 to 50 percent less water.