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Joseph G. Robins, Blair L. Waldron, and Paul G. Johnson

turf characteristics such as color, quality, and increased tendency for summer dormancy when compared with traditional turf species ( Bushman et al., 2007 ; Robins et al., 2006 ). Turf quality is a particularly important trait and consists of the

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Jennifer A. Kimball, Thomas G. Isleib, William C. Reynolds, Maria C. Zuleta, and Susana R. Milla-Lewis

leaf texture and shorter internode length that are desirable in the market. Therefore, new st. augustinegrass cultivars with improved winter survival and desirable turf quality are needed for the turfgrass industry in the transitional climatic region of

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Michel Pirchio, Marco Fontanelli, Christian Frasconi, Luisa Martelloni, Michele Raffaelli, Andrea Peruzzi, Lisa Caturegli, Monica Gaetani, Simone Magni, Marco Volterrani, and Nicola Grossi

, there is a kind of rotary mower that has proven to produce a superior turf quality compared with traditional walk-behind rotary mowers: autonomous mowers ( Grossi et al., 2016 ; Pirchio et al., 2018 ). Time savings, no polluting gasses, preventing

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Longyi Yuan, Deying Li, Yang Gao, and Wenjing Xiao

and maximum turf quality under the influence of deicing salts. Since KB and RF are used widely in temperate and cold regions of the United States as home lawn and landscape turf, and ALK offers salt tolerance, mixtures of these species may improve the

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Xiaozhong Liu and Bingru Huang

Summer decline in turf quality of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Hud.) is a major problem in golf course green management. The objective of this study was to examine whether seasonal changes and cultivar variations in turf performance are associated with changes in photosynthesis and respiration rates for creeping bentgrass. The study was conducted on a USGA-specification putting green in Manhattan, Kans., during 1997 and 1998. Four creeping bentgrass cultivars, `L-93', `Crenshaw', `Penncross', and `Providence', were examined. Grasses were mowed daily at 4 mm and irrigated on alternate days to replace 100% of daily water loss. In both years, turf quality, canopy net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and leaf photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) were high in May and June and decreased to the lowest levels in July through September. Whole-plant respiration rate (R) and canopy minus air temperature (▵T) increased during summer months. In October, turf quality and Pn increased, whereas R and T decreased. During summer months, turf quality was highest for `L-93', lowest for `Penncross', and intermediate for `Providence' and `Crenshaw'. Seasonal changes and cultivar variations in turf quality were associated with the decreasing photosynthetic rate and increasing respiration rate.

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J.M. Fu, A.J. Koski, and Y.L. Qian

Salt problems in turfgrass sites are becoming more common. The effects of mowing management on salinity tolerance are not well understood. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of three mowing regimes on turf quality and growth responses of `L-93' creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris L.) to salinity stress. Sods of `L-93' creeping bentgrass were grown in containers (45 cm long and 10 cm in diameter) in a greenhouse. Treatments included three mowing regimes (clipping three times weekly at 25.4 mm, four times at 12.7 mm, and daily at 6.4 mm) and four levels of irrigation water salinity (control, 5, 10, and 15 dS·m-1). The relationship of increasing soil salinity with increasing irrigation water salinity was linear in each soil layer. Increasing salinity reduced turf quality and clipping yield more severely and rapidly when mowed at 6.4 mm than at 12.7 or 25.4 mm. Regression analysis of soil salinity and turf quality suggested that turf quality of creeping bentgrass mowed to 6.4, 12.7, and 25.4 mm fell to an unacceptable level when soil salinity reached 4.1, 12.5, and 13.9 dS·m-1, respectively. Data on turf quality, clipping yield, and verdure indicated that salinity damage becomes more severe under close mowing conditions and that a moderate increase in mowing height could improve salinity tolerance of creeping bentgrass.

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J.S. Ebdon, R.A. Gagne, and R.C. Manley

Turf loss from freezing injury results in costly reestablishment, especially with turfgrasses such as perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) having poor low-temperature tolerance. However, no studies have been conducted to investigate the relative importance of low-temperature tolerance and its contribution to turfgrass quality (performance) in northern climates. The objective of this research was to compare critical freezing thresholds (LT50) of 10 perennial ryegrass cultivars representing contrasting turf-quality types (five high- and five low-performance cultivars). Cultivar selection was based on turfgrass quality ranking (top and bottom five) from the 1997 National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) trial conducted at the Maine (Orono) location. Ten freeze-stress temperatures (-3 to -21 °C) and a nonfrozen control (5 °C) were applied to 5-month-old plants. Acclimated (AC) plant material maintained in an unheated polyhouse during the fall and winter in Massachusetts was compared to nonacclimated (NA) plant material (grown at 18 °C minimum in a greenhouse). Low-temperature tolerance was assessed using whole-plant survival and electrolyte leakage (EL). Estimates of LT50 were derived from fitted EL and survival curves using nonlinear regression. High-performance cultivars were able to tolerate significantly lower freeze-stress temperatures indicated by less EL and greater survival compared to low-performance cultivars. The EL method had good predictive capability for low-temperature survival. Acclimated tissues and high-performance cultivars had significantly flatter EL curves and lower mortality rates. These results underscore the importance of selecting cold-tolerant perennial ryegrass genotypes for adaptation to northern climates.

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Paweł Petelewicz, Paweł M. Orliński, Marco Schiavon, Manuel Mundo-Ocampo, J. Ole Becker, and James H. Baird

nematode-induced shot-gall formation (0% to 100%)] was assessed whenever sufficient to evaluate. When the damage was minimal, visual turf quality rating was performed. Turfgrass visual quality was rated according to the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program

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Kehua Wang and Yiwei Jiang

the turf quality, photosynthetic rate, and chlorophyll and carbohydrate concentration of turfgrass ( Huang et al., 1998 ; Jiang and Wang, 2006 ). Although perennial grasses are considered to be tolerant to a shortage of oxygen induced by waterlogging

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Jinyu Wang, Patrick Burgess, Stacy A. Bonos, William A. Meyer, and Bingru Huang

were 3.7–4.2, hard and sheep fescues were 5.5–8.2 and 6.5–7.8, respectively, and slender creeping and strong creeping red fescues were 4.7–5.3 and 4.2–7.0, respectively. Fig. 1. Turf quality of ( A ) chewings fescue, ( B ) hard fescue, ( C ) sheep