Several recent studies, including from our laboratory, have provided evidence that by improving tuber calcium level, we can improve tuber quality such as low internal defects and better storability. The purpose of this study was to be determine the influence of supplemental calcium fertilization on tuber size and tuber number. For this purpose, plantlets of Solanum tuberosum cv. Russet Burbank raised in tissue culture were planted in 20-L pots filled with sandy loam soil with pH of 6.9 and soil calcium level of 350 ppm. All treatments received same total amount of nitrogen (at the rate of 280 kg·ha–1). Five treatments were evaluated: i) nonsplit nitrogen (from ammonium nitrate), ii) split nitrogen (from ammonium nitrate), iii) split nitrogen + gypsum, iv) split nitrogen (from liquid nitrogen) + calcium chloride, and v) split nitrogen (from calcium nitrate). The total calcium was applied at the rate of 168 kg·ha–1. Gypsum application was made at 4 weeks after planting, and other sources of calcium were applied on a split schedule (equally split at 4, 6, 8 weeks after planting). Four months after planting, tubers were harvested and evaluated. In general, all calcium treatments had lower tuber number and greater tuber size compared to the nonsplit nitrogen control. The percentage of total A-grade tubers as well as the percentage yield from A-grade tubers was increased by all calcium applications. These results suggest that calcium content I the soil can influence both potato tuber number and tuber size.
Senay Ozgen, Mustafa Ozgen, and Jiwan P. Palta
Stephen L. Love and Asunta Thompson-Johns
Seed piece spacing is an important economic consideration in the production of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). The optimum spacing varies with cultivar and intended market. A study was designed to determine the influence of seed piece spacing on yield, tuber size distribution, net returns, and stem and tuber density of three processing potato cultivars. Seed tubers of cultivars Russet Burbank, Frontier Russet, and Ranger Russet were planted 8, 15, 23, 31, 46, 61, 76, or 91 cm apart at two locations in 1988 and 1989. Total, marketable (U.S. No. 1), and midsize (226–452 g tubers) yield, tuber size distribution, net profits from a representative processing contract, and stem and tuber density (number per meters of row) were determined. All three cultivars achieved highest total yields at the narrowest (8 cm) spacing. Maximum marketable and midsize (226–452 g) yield occurred between 15 and 31 cm, depending on the cultivar. Size distribution shifted from a predominance of small tubers at narrow spacings to a predominance of large tubers at wide spacings, and the rate of shift was cultivar-dependent. `Russet Burbank' showed a broad range of optimal spacing for net returns, with a maximum in the range of 23 to 46 cm. Optima for `Frontier Russet' and `Ranger Russet' were between 15 and 46 cm. Of the four tuber measurements, midsize yield appeared to be best for determining optimum spacing. Marketable yield was also a useful measurement. All three cultivars gave maximum midsize yields at a stem density of 10.5 to 12.1 per meter of row and a tuber density of 23.9 to 24.9 per meter of row. Tuber density showed some promise as a predictor of optimum seed piece spacing for new cultivars.
J. Harrison Ferebee IV, Charles W. Cahoon, Michael L. Flessner, David B. Langston, Ramon Arancibia, Thomas E. Hines, Hunter B. Blake, and M. Carter Askew
vegetation. Vine desiccation may be executed via mechanical destruction or chemical desiccation ( Boydston et al., 2018 ; Murphy, 1968 ). However, chemical desiccation is the preferred method to regulate tuber size and skin strength ( Kuhar et al., 2018
Christian T. Christensen, Lincoln Zotarelli, Kathleen G. Haynes, and Charles Ethan Kelly
development and storage of tubers ( Davidson, 1958 ), time to sprouting in potato tubers can vary among varieties between years ( Kim et al., 1999 ; Van Ittersum, 1992 ), by tuber size ( Claassens and Vreugdenhil, 2000 , Krijthe, 1962 ; Van Ittersum, 1992
Junne-Jih Chen, Ming-Chung Liu, and Yang-Hsiu Ho
Tuber production of calla lily (Zantedeschia elliottiana Spreng cv. Super Gold) was investigated using three size ranges (7-10, 4-7, and <4 mm shoot diameter) of in vitro plantlets acclimated in either pots or soil beds in a protected house. The shoots and tubers of large plantlets exhibited higher rates of dry-matter accumulation than did those of small plantlets. The diameter of tubers harvested from pots ranged from 0.67 to 4.1 cm with median values of 2.7, 2.1, and 1.9 cm for the plants derived from large, medium, and small plantlets, respectively. Plants grown in soil beds, regardless of size, produced larger tubers than did those grown in pots. Tubers >3 cm in diameter developed on 25% and 52% of plants grown in pots and soil beds, respectively. Our results suggest that improved calla lily production could be realized by using larger in vitro plantlets as the source material and growing them in soil beds in a protected house.
Weixing Cao and Theodore W. Tibbitts
This study determined the responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Norland) plants to various patterns of air temperature changes over different growth periods (phasic temperature changes). In each of two experiments under controlled environments, eight treatments of temperature changes were carried out in two growth rooms maintained at 17 and 22C and a constant vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa and 14-hour photoperiod. Plants were grown for 63 days after transplanting of tissue culture plantlets in 20-liter pots containing peat-vermiculite mix. Temperature changes were imposed on days 21 and 42, which were essentially at the beginning of tuber initiation and tuber enlargement, respectively, for this cultivar. Plants were moved between two temperature rooms to obtain eight temperature change patterns: 17-17-17, 17-17-22, 17-22-17, 22-17-17, 17-22-22, 22-17-22, 22-22-17, and 22-22-22C over three 21-day growth periods. At harvest on day 63, total plant dry weight was higher for the treatments beginning with 22C than for those beginning with 17C, with highest biomass obtained at 22-22-17 and 22-17-17C. Shoot dry weight increased with temperature increases from 17-17-17 to 22-22-22C during the three growth periods. Tuber dry weight was highest with 22-17-17C, and lowest with 17-17-22 and 17-22-22C. With 22-17-17C, both dry weights of stolons and roots were lowest. Total tuber number and number of small tubers (<2.5 cm) were highest with 17-17-17 and 17-17-22C, and lowest with 17-22-22 and 22-22-22C, whereas number of medium tubers (2.5-5.0 cm) was highest with 22-17-22C, and number of large tubers (>5.0 cm) was highest with 22-17-17C. This study indicates that tuber development of potatoes is optimized with a phasic pattern of high temperature during early growth and low temperature during later growth.
Samuel Y.C. Essah, Jorge A. Delgado, Merlin Dillon, and Richard Sparks
yield and quality, such as disease suppression, in addition to the effects of nutrient availability and cycling of N from the cover crop. In most studies conducted on cover crops and potato performance, the effect of the cover crop on tuber size
David Douches, Walter Pett, Diedrich Visser, Joseph Coombs, Kelly Zarka, Kimberly Felcher, Gurling Bothma, Johan Brink, Muffy Koch, and Hector Quemada
-deep holes. During the 2005–06 and 2006–07 seasons in Roodeplaat, ‘Spunta’ and ‘SpuntaG2’ plots were evaluated for several agronomic properties by A. Visser. These properties included maturity, growth habit, foliage cover, mature plant height, tuber size
Abdullah A. Alsadon and Kenneth W. Knutson
Tubers of three potato cultivars (Norland, Desiree, and Russet Burbank) produced on field-grown plants, greenhouse plants (minitubers), and in-vitro plantlets (microtubers) were kept at 5, 10, and 20°C. Sprouting was recorded throughout a 14- to 22-week storage period. The effect of cultivar, temperature, and tuber size closely followed previous research for field- and greenhouse-produced tubers. For in-vitro produced microtubers, the temperature effect followed an expected pattern, but the cultivar effect was different from that observed for field and greenhouse tubers. Two sprouting indices were developed (sprouting rate index and sprouting ratio index) to quantitatively describe the sprouting characteristics. Correlation coefficients suggest that the “sprouting ratio” method can be an acceptable alternative to the “sprouting rate” method.
Senay Ozgen and Jiwan P. Palta
Tuberization in potato is known to be under complex biochemical control involving hormones. A number of studies have provided evidence for a critical role of GA in tuberization. There is also evidence that GA in plants can be modulated by a Ca/calmodulin pathway. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of supplemental Ca fertilization on tuber size and tuber number. Plantlets of Solanum tuberosum `Russet Burbank' raised in tissue culture were planted in 20-L pots filled with sandy loam field soil with the pH of 6.9 and exchangeable soil Ca level of 350 ppm. All treatments received the same total amount of N (equivalent to the rate of 280 kg·ha-1). Four treatments were evaluated: nonsplit N (from ammonium nitrate), split N (from ammonium nitrate), split N+Ca (from calcium nitrate), split N+Ca (50% N from urea, 50% N from ammonium nitrate and Ca from calcium chloride). The total Ca was applied at the rate equivalent to 168 kg·ha-1 on a split schedule (equally split at four, six, eight and ten weeks after planting). Four months after planting tubers were harvested and evaluated. As expected tuber tissue Ca was increased by Ca application from 144 to 245 μg·g-1. In general, the two Ca treatments had significantly lower tuber number per plant as compared to the nonsplit and split N treatments. A plot of mean tuber Ca and tuber number for individual plants showed a significant negative relationship. Both Ca treatments produced tubers with higher mean tuber weight compared to nonsplit N. This increase in tuber size with Ca application was not apparent when compared with split N treatment. These results show that Ca application to soil can decrease tuber number suggesting that soil Ca may influence tuberization in potato.