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Cecilia E. McGregor and Vickie Waters

2009 ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2011 ). The seedless fruit is produced on triploid plants, but because pollination and fertilization are required for fruit set, and these plants produce negligible amounts of viable pollen, diploid pollen sources

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S. Brooks Parrish and Zhanao Deng

fewer leaves and thus have less ornamental value. Nevertheless, these tetraploids will be valuable breeding parents for producing triploid hybrids. Many triploids are known to have greater biomass, improved stress resistance, and sterility ( Wang et al

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Young-Sik Park, Je-Chang Lee, Haet-Nim Jeong, Nam-Yong Um, and Jae-Yun Heo

alternative, triploid grapes have extremely low fertility ( Heo et al., 2007 ), and a single GA 3 application at full bloom is presumably sufficient, enabling the standardization of the production of seedless grapes ( Heo and Park, 2016a ). Therefore, we

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José Cuenca, Pablo Aleza, José Juárez, José A. Pina, and Luis Navarro

fruit market ( Intercitrus, Interprofessional Citrícola Española, 2008 ), which demands high-quality, seedless fruits throughout the marketing season. Therefore, the production of seedless varieties is very important. Triploid plants are generally

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Pablo Aleza, José Cuenca, José Juárez, José A. Pina, and Luis Navarro

commercial cultivars. However, triploid plants have very low fertility, are generally sterile, and do not induce seeds in other cultivars by cross-pollination ( Frost and Soost, 1968 ). Several methods have been developed to obtain triploid citrus ( Navarro

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Lauren E. Kurtz, Mark H. Brand, and Jessica D. Lubell-Brand

( Parsons et al., 2019 ). Tetraploid plants produced in these studies exhibited traits such as larger leaves and greater shoot fresh weight and flavonoid content. Tetraploid plants crossed with diploid plants can generate triploid plants, which have three

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Todd J. Rounsaville, Darren H. Touchell, and Thomas G. Ranney

as well as across ploidy levels have been documented, including M . × giganteus (2 n = 3 x = 57), a naturally occurring triploid hybrid between diploid M. sinensis and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus ( Glowacka and Jezowski, 2009 ). As a result

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Whitney D. Phillips, Thomas G. Ranney, Darren H. Touchell, and Thomas A. Eaker

. Development of highly infertile cultivars of P. calleryana and related hybrids would be desirable as an alternative to the fertile cultivars currently available. One approach for producing seedless plants is through the development of triploids. Triploids

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Peter J. Dittmar, David W. Monks, and Jonathan R. Schultheis

Triploid (seedless) watermelons have increased in popularity and compose three fourths of the watermelon production in the United States ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 2005 ). Triploid watermelons produce nonviable

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Alan T. Whittemore and Zheng-Lian Xia

wild ( Whittemore and Olsen, 2011 ; Whittemore and Xia, 2017 ) and two triploids known in cultivation ( Santamour and Bentz, 1995 ; Sherald et al., 1994 ). Understanding the complex genetics of american elm is important if breeding and selection work