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Cecilia E. McGregor and Vickie Waters

2009 ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2011 ). The seedless fruit is produced on triploid plants, but because pollination and fertilization are required for fruit set, and these plants produce negligible amounts of viable pollen, diploid pollen sources

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José Cuenca, Pablo Aleza, José Juárez, José A. Pina and Luis Navarro

fruit market ( Intercitrus, Interprofessional Citrícola Española, 2008 ), which demands high-quality, seedless fruits throughout the marketing season. Therefore, the production of seedless varieties is very important. Triploid plants are generally

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Pablo Aleza, José Cuenca, José Juárez, José A. Pina and Luis Navarro

commercial cultivars. However, triploid plants have very low fertility, are generally sterile, and do not induce seeds in other cultivars by cross-pollination ( Frost and Soost, 1968 ). Several methods have been developed to obtain triploid citrus ( Navarro

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Todd J. Rounsaville, Darren H. Touchell and Thomas G. Ranney

as well as across ploidy levels have been documented, including M . × giganteus (2 n = 3 x = 57), a naturally occurring triploid hybrid between diploid M. sinensis and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus ( Glowacka and Jezowski, 2009 ). As a result

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Whitney D. Phillips, Thomas G. Ranney, Darren H. Touchell and Thomas A. Eaker

. Development of highly infertile cultivars of P. calleryana and related hybrids would be desirable as an alternative to the fertile cultivars currently available. One approach for producing seedless plants is through the development of triploids. Triploids

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Peter J. Dittmar, David W. Monks and Jonathan R. Schultheis

Triploid (seedless) watermelons have increased in popularity and compose three fourths of the watermelon production in the United States ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 2005 ). Triploid watermelons produce nonviable

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Lisa Alexander

large, unreduced pollen cell (2 n ) and a normal egg cell ( n ) may combine to produce a triploid (3 n ) offspring. An examination of the frequency distribution of pollen grain size in H. macrophylla revealed a single cultivar, Trophee, with a

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Alan T. Whittemore and Zheng-Lian Xia

wild ( Whittemore and Olsen, 2011 ; Whittemore and Xia, 2017 ) and two triploids known in cultivation ( Santamour and Bentz, 1995 ; Sherald et al., 1994 ). Understanding the complex genetics of american elm is important if breeding and selection work

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Joshua I. Adkins, Joshua H. Freeman and Stephen M. Olson

Triploid (seedless) watermelons accounted for ≈89% of the watermelons grown in the United States in 2010 ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2011 ). Special production considerations must be taken into account when growing triploid watermelons

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Mingxiu Liu, Peng Wang, Xu Wei, Qing Liu, Xiaolin Li, Guolu Liang and Qigao Guo

of the increased contents of some bioactive compounds in polyploid plants ( Das et al., 2013 ; Kong et al., 2017 ; Nakasone et al., 1999 ; Xie et al., 2012 ). Triploid plants are highly sterile because of the abnormalities in chromosome pairing and